Listed Binary Options - Cboe

No gods, no kings, only NOPE - or divining the future with options flows. [Part 3: Hedge Winding, Unwinding, and the NOPE]

Hello friends!
We're on the last post of this series ("A Gentle Introduction to NOPE"), where we get to use all the Big Boy Concepts (TM) we've discussed in the prior posts and put them all together. Some words before we begin:
  1. This post will be massively theoretical, in the sense that my own speculation and inferences will be largely peppered throughout the post. Are those speculations right? I think so, or I wouldn't be posting it, but they could also be incorrect.
  2. I will briefly touch on using the NOPE this slide, but I will make a secondary post with much more interesting data and trends I've observed. This is primarily for explaining what NOPE is and why it potentially works, and what it potentially measures.
My advice before reading this is to glance at my prior posts, and either read those fully or at least make sure you understand the tl;drs:
https://www.reddit.com/thecorporation/collection/27dc72ad-4e78-44cd-a788-811cd666e32a
Depending on popular demand, I will also make a last-last post called FAQ, where I'll tabulate interesting questions you guys ask me in the comments!
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So a brief recap before we begin.
Market Maker ("Mr. MM"): An individual or firm who makes money off the exchange fees and bid-ask spread for an asset, while usually trying to stay neutral about the direction the asset moves.
Delta-gamma hedging: The process Mr. MM uses to stay neutral when selling you shitty OTM options, by buying/selling shares (usually) of the underlying as the price moves.
Law of Surprise [Lily-ism]: Effectively, the expected profit of an options trade is zero for both the seller and the buyer.
Random Walk: A special case of a deeper probability probability called a martingale, which basically models stocks or similar phenomena randomly moving every step they take (for stocks, roughly every millisecond). This is one of the most popular views of how stock prices move, especially on short timescales.
Future Expected Payoff Function [Lily-ism]: This is some hidden function that every market participant has about an asset, which more or less models all the possible future probabilities/values of the assets to arrive at a "fair market price". This is a more generalized case of a pricing model like Black-Scholes, or DCF.
Counter-party: The opposite side of your trade (if you sell an option, they buy it; if you buy an option, they sell it).
Price decoherence ]Lily-ism]: A more generalized notion of IV Crush, price decoherence happens when instead of the FEPF changing gradually over time (price formation), the FEPF rapidly changes, due usually to new information being added to the system (e.g. Vermin Supreme winning the 2020 election).
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One of the most popular gambling events for option traders to play is earnings announcements, and I do owe the concept of NOPE to hypothesizing specifically about the behavior of stock prices at earnings. Much like a black hole in quantum mechanics, most conventional theories about how price should work rapidly break down briefly before, during, and after ER, and generally experienced traders tend to shy away from playing earnings, given their similar unpredictability.
Before we start: what is NOPE? NOPE is a funny backronym from Net Options Pricing Effect, which in its most basic sense, measures the impact option delta has on the underlying price, as compared to share price. When I first started investigating NOPE, I called it OPE (options pricing effect), but NOPE sounds funnier.
The formula for it is dead simple, but I also have no idea how to do LaTeX on reddit, so this is the best I have:

https://preview.redd.it/ais37icfkwt51.png?width=826&format=png&auto=webp&s=3feb6960f15a336fa678e945d93b399a8e59bb49
Since I've already encountered this, put delta in this case is the absolute value (50 delta) to represent a put. If you represent put delta as a negative (the conventional way), do not subtract it; add it.
To keep this simple for the non-mathematically minded: the NOPE today is equal to the weighted sum (weighted by volume) of the delta of every call minus the delta of every put for all options chains extending from today to infinity. Finally, we then divide that number by the # of shares traded today in the market session (ignoring pre-market and post-market, since options cannot trade during those times).
Effectively, NOPE is a rough and dirty way to approximate the impact of delta-gamma hedging as a function of share volume, with us hand-waving the following factors:
  1. To keep calculations simple, we assume that all counter-parties are hedged. This is obviously not true, especially for idiots who believe theta ganging is safe, but holds largely true especially for highly liquid tickers, or tickers will designated market makers (e.g. any ticker in the NASDAQ, for instance).
  2. We assume that all hedging takes place via shares. For SPY and other products tracking the S&P, for instance, market makers can actually hedge via futures or other options. This has the benefit for large positions of not moving the underlying price, but still makes up a fairly small amount of hedges compared to shares.

Winding and Unwinding

I briefly touched on this in a past post, but two properties of NOPE seem to apply well to EER-like behavior (aka any binary catalyst event):
  1. NOPE measures sentiment - In general, the options market is seen as better informed than share traders (e.g. insiders trade via options, because of leverage + easier to mask positions). Therefore, a heavy call/put skew is usually seen as a bullish sign, while the reverse is also true.
  2. NOPE measures system stability
I'm not going to one-sentence explain #2, because why say in one sentence what I can write 1000 words on. In short, NOPE intends to measure sensitivity of the system (the ticker) to disruption. This makes sense, when you view it in the context of delta-gamma hedging. When we assume all counter-parties are hedged, this means an absolutely massive amount of shares get sold/purchased when the underlying price moves. This is because of the following:
a) Assume I, Mr. MM sell 1000 call options for NKLA 25C 10/23 and 300 put options for NKLA 15p 10/23. I'm just going to make up deltas because it's too much effort to calculate them - 30 delta call, 20 delta put.
This implies Mr. MM needs the following to delta hedge: (1000 call options * 30 shares to buy for each) [to balance out writing calls) - (300 put options * 20 shares to sell for each) = 24,000 net shares Mr. MM needs to acquire to balance out his deltas/be fully neutral.
b) This works well when NKLA is at $20. But what about when it hits $19 (because it only can go down, just like their trucks). Thanks to gamma, now we have to recompute the deltas, because they've changed for both the calls (they went down) and for the puts (they went up).
Let's say to keep it simple that now my calls are 20 delta, and my puts are 30 delta. From the 24,000 net shares, Mr. MM has to now have:
(1000 call options * 20 shares to have for each) - (300 put options * 30 shares to sell for each) = 11,000 shares.
Therefore, with a $1 shift in price, now to hedge and be indifferent to direction, Mr. MM has to go from 24,000 shares to 11,000 shares, meaning he has to sell 13,000 shares ASAP, or take on increased risk. Now, you might be saying, "13,000 shares seems small. How would this disrupt the system?"
(This process, by the way, is called hedge unwinding)
It won't, in this example. But across thousands of MMs and millions of contracts, this can - especially in highly optioned tickers - make up a substantial fraction of the net flow of shares per day. And as we know from our desk example, the buying or selling of shares directly changes the price of the stock itself.
This, by the way, is why the NOPE formula takes the shape it does. Some astute readers might notice it looks similar to GEX, which is not a coincidence. GEX however replaces daily volume with open interest, and measures gamma over delta, which I did not find good statistical evidence to support, especially for earnings.
So, with our example above, why does NOPE measure system stability? We can assume for argument's sake that if someone buys a share of NKLA, they're fine with moderate price swings (+- $20 since it's NKLA, obviously), and in it for the long/medium haul. And in most cases this is fine - we can own stock and not worry about minor swings in price. But market makers can't* (they can, but it exposes them to risk), because of how delta works. In fact, for most institutional market makers, they have clearly defined delta limits by end of day, and even small price changes require them to rebalance their hedges.
This over the whole market adds up to a lot shares moving, just to balance out your stupid Robinhood YOLOs. While there are some tricks (dark pools, block trades) to not impact the price of the underlying, the reality is that the more options contracts there are on a ticker, the more outsized influence it will have on the ticker's price. This can technically be exactly balanced, if option put delta is equal to option call delta, but never actually ends up being the case. And unlike shares traded, the shares representing the options are more unstable, meaning they will be sold/bought in response to small price shifts. And will end up magnifying those price shifts, accordingly.

NOPE and Earnings

So we have a new shiny indicator, NOPE. What does it actually mean and do?
There's much literature going back to the 1980s that options markets do have some level of predictiveness towards earnings, which makes sense intuitively. Unlike shares markets, where you can continue to hold your share even if it dips 5%, in options you get access to expanded opportunity to make riches... and losses. An options trader betting on earnings is making a risky and therefore informed bet that he or she knows the outcome, versus a share trader who might be comfortable bagholding in the worst case scenario.
As I've mentioned largely in comments on my prior posts, earnings is a special case because, unlike popular misconceptions, stocks do not go up and down solely due to analyst expectations being meet, beat, or missed. In fact, stock prices move according to the consensus market expectation, which is a function of all the participants' FEPF on that ticker. This is why the price moves so dramatically - even if a stock beats, it might not beat enough to justify the high price tag (FSLY); even if a stock misses, it might have spectacular guidance or maybe the market just was assuming it would go bankrupt instead.
To look at the impact of NOPE and why it may play a role in post-earnings-announcement immediate price moves, let's review the following cases:
  1. Stock Meets/Exceeds Market Expectations (aka price goes up) - In the general case, we would anticipate post-ER market participants value the stock at a higher price, pushing it up rapidly. If there's a high absolute value of NOPE on said ticker, this should end up magnifying the positive move since:
a) If NOPE is high negative - This means a ton of put buying, which means a lot of those puts are now worthless (due to price decoherence). This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to close out their sold/shorted shares, buying them, and pushing the stock price up.
b) If NOPE is high positive - This means a ton of call buying, which means a lot of puts are now worthless (see a) but also a lot of calls are now worth more. This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to close out their sold/shorted shares AND also buy more shares to cover their calls, pushing the stock price up.
2) Stock Meets/Misses Market Expectations (aka price goes down) - Inversely to what I mentioned above, this should push to the stock price down, fairly immediately. If there's a high absolute value of NOPE on said ticker, this should end up magnifying the negative move since:
a) If NOPE is high negative - This means a ton of put buying, which means a lot of those puts are now worth more, and a lot of calls are now worth less/worth less (due to price decoherence). This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to sell/short more shares, pushing the stock price down.
b) If NOPE is high positive - This means a ton of call buying, which means a lot of calls are now worthless (see a) but also a lot of puts are now worth more. This means that to stay delta neutral, market makers need to sell even more shares to keep their calls and puts neutral, pushing the stock price down.
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Based on the above two cases, it should be a bit more clear why NOPE is a measure of sensitivity to system perturbation. While we previously discussed it in the context of magnifying directional move, the truth is it also provides a directional bias to our "random" walk. This is because given a price move in the direction predicted by NOPE, we expect it to be magnified, especially in situations of price decoherence. If a stock price goes up right after an ER report drops, even based on one participant deciding to value the stock higher, this provides a runaway reaction which boosts the stock price (due to hedging factors as well as other participants' behavior) and inures it to drops.

NOPE and NOPE_MAD

I'm going to gloss over this section because this is more statistical methods than anything interesting. In general, if you have enough data, I recommend using NOPE_MAD over NOPE. While NOPE in theory represents a "real" quantity (net option delta over net share delta), NOPE_MAD (the median absolute deviation of NOPE) does not. NOPE_MAD simply answecompare the following:
  1. How exceptional is today's NOPE versus historic baseline (30 days prior)?
  2. How do I compare two tickers' NOPEs effectively (since some tickers, like TSLA, have a baseline positive NOPE, because Elon memes)? In the initial stages, we used just a straight numerical threshold (let's say NOPE >= 20), but that quickly broke down. NOPE_MAD aims to detect anomalies, because anomalies in general give you tendies.
I might add the formula later in Mathenese, but simply put, to find NOPE_MAD you do the following:
  1. Calculate today's NOPE score (this can be done end of day or intraday, with the true value being EOD of course)
  2. Calculate the end of day NOPE scores on the ticker for the previous 30 trading days
  3. Compute the median of the previous 30 trading days' NOPEs
  4. From the median, find the 30 days' median absolute deviation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Median_absolute_deviation)
  5. Find today's deviation as compared to the MAD calculated by: [(today's NOPE) - (median NOPE of last 30 days)] / (median absolute deviation of last 30 days)
This is usually reported as sigma (σ), and has a few interesting properties:
  1. The mean of NOPE_MAD for any ticker is almost exactly 0.
  2. [Lily's Speculation's Speculation] NOPE_MAD acts like a spring, and has a tendency to reverse direction as a function of its magnitude. No proof on this yet, but exploring it!

Using the NOPE to predict ER

So the last section was a lot of words and theory, and a lot of what I'm mentioning here is empirically derived (aka I've tested it out, versus just blabbered).
In general, the following holds true:
  1. 3 sigma NOPE_MAD tends to be "the threshold": For very low NOPE_MAD magnitudes (+- 1 sigma), it's effectively just noise, and directionality prediction is low, if not non-existent. It's not exactly like 3 sigma is a play and 2.9 sigma is not a play; NOPE_MAD accuracy increases as NOPE_MAD magnitude (either positive or negative) increases.
  2. NOPE_MAD is only useful on highly optioned tickers: In general, I introduce another parameter for sifting through "candidate" ERs to play: option volume * 100/share volume. When this ends up over let's say 0.4, NOPE_MAD provides a fairly good window into predicting earnings behavior.
  3. NOPE_MAD only predicts during the after-market/pre-market session: I also have no idea if this is true, but my hunch is that next day behavior is mostly random and driven by market movement versus earnings behavior. NOPE_MAD for now only predicts direction of price movements right between the release of the ER report (AH or PM) and the ending of that market session. This is why in general I recommend playing shares, not options for ER (since you can sell during the AH/PM).
  4. NOPE_MAD only predicts direction of price movement: This isn't exactly true, but it's all I feel comfortable stating given the data I have. On observation of ~2700 data points of ER-ticker events since Mar 2019 (SPY 500), I only so far feel comfortable predicting whether stock price goes up (>0 percent difference) or down (<0 price difference). This is +1 for why I usually play with shares.
Some statistics:
#0) As a baseline/null hypothesis, after ER on the SPY500 since Mar 2019, 50-51% price movements in the AH/PM are positive (>0) and ~46-47% are negative (<0).
#1) For NOPE_MAD >= +3 sigma, roughly 68% of price movements are positive after earnings.
#2) For NOPE_MAD <= -3 sigma, roughly 29% of price movements are positive after earnings.
#3) When using a logistic model of only data including NOPE_MAD >= +3 sigma or NOPE_MAD <= -3 sigma, and option/share vol >= 0.4 (around 25% of all ERs observed), I was able to achieve 78% predictive accuracy on direction.

Caveats/Read This

Like all models, NOPE is wrong, but perhaps useful. It's also fairly new (I started working on it around early August 2020), and in fact, my initial hypothesis was exactly incorrect (I thought the opposite would happen, actually). Similarly, as commenters have pointed out, the timeline of data I'm using is fairly compressed (since Mar 2019), and trends and models do change. In fact, I've noticed significantly lower accuracy since the coronavirus recession (when I measured it in early September), but I attribute this mostly to a smaller date range, more market volatility, and honestly, dumber option traders (~65% accuracy versus nearly 80%).
My advice so far if you do play ER with the NOPE method is to use it as following:
  1. Buy/short shares approximately right when the market closes before ER. Ideally even buying it right before the earnings report drops in the AH session is not a bad idea if you can.
  2. Sell/buy to close said shares at the first sign of major weakness (e.g. if the NOPE predicted outcome is incorrect).
  3. Sell/buy to close shares even if it is correct ideally before conference call, or by the end of the after-market/pre-market session.
  4. Only play tickers with high NOPE as well as high option/share vol.
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In my next post, which may be in a few days, I'll talk about potential use cases for SPY and intraday trends, but I wanted to make sure this wasn't like 7000 words by itself.
Cheers.
- Lily
submitted by the_lilypad to thecorporation [link] [comments]

AMZN Trade Retrospective: Collecting a $.37 Credit for the Potential to Make Another $50

AMZN Trade Retrospective: Collecting a $.37 Credit for the Potential to Make Another $50
There are different ways to trade in a choppy environment. Here’s a deep dive on how I attempted to use weekly options to trade a potential bounce in AMZN, and collected $.37 initially, for the possibility of making $50 more, even though the trade ended up being only an $.81 winner.

The Entry

Last Thursday, 9/24, when $AMZN was trading at about $3000 a share, I was looking for a cheap way to play a bounce in the stock. During that time, my bias in the markets had begun to shift to a more bullish stance after seeing how the market had difficulty grinding lower. With that in mind, I wanted to play a potential bounce in tech. But I knew I didn’t want to pay a debit at all to play for a bounce that might not even happen, given how uncertain and choppy the markets had been, but I still wanted to set myself up to capture some large gains if AMZN did indeed bounce. Therefore, the strategy that made the most sense to me, was a Call broken wing butterfly.
Given that I’m a very short-term options trader who loves trading weeklies, I was trying to look for a cheap butterfly for the upcoming week that I could put on for a net credit. After exploring the options chain, I came across the +1/-2/+1 3300/3350/3450 call broken wing butterfly for the Oct 2 series. This fly, at the time (on Sept 24), was trading for a total of $.37 credit. Meaning, by putting on that butterfly, I would get paid $.37, and the following scenarios could happen:
  1. If AMZN decided to tank or hang out sideways and never get up close enough to the butterfly to expand the spread in my favor, then I’d walk away pocketing the $.37 credit
  2. If AMZN slowly crept up to reach exactly 3350 by expiration, I’d not only get to keep the credit, but also be able to sell the butterfly back out for $50. Of course, it doesn’t need to reach exactly 3350 by expiration. If AMZN slowly worked its way up to near 3300, then the butterfly would expand very nicely as well.
  3. If AMZN blew past 3400 by expiration, I’d see a loss, up to a maximum of $50 / spread (if $AMZN moves past 3450). That’s because the 3300/3350 long call vertical of the fly provides 50 points of coverage before I essentially start losing money from the 3350/3450 short vertical, up until that 3450 kicks in to cap off further upside losses.
So that is a rough outline of the potential scenarios that would happen with this trade.
Given the choppy market conditions, I was ok with risking $50/spread (point #3), in order to not lose money if I’m wrong on direction (point #1), while at the same time, keeping myself open to the possibility of the butterfly expanding in my favor (point #2) for some potentially very large gains.
But satisfying point #3 is tricky. I needed more data points suggesting that $AMZN wouldn’t surge higher early on in the trade. Because if $AMZN did surge higher early on in the trade, then while the 3300 long call would rise in value, those two 3350 short calls would also rise in value, and because there’d still be some time value left, they could be very juiced up and eat away at the profits of that 3300 long call, so much so that the 3450 long call won’t even be able to offset those losses, especially given how far out of the money that 3450 call is.

AMZN on 9/24, daily timeframe
Looking at the chart above on 9/24, we can see that AMZN was trading at around $3000/share. In order to reach $3300 (where the first long call of the broken wing butterfly is), the stock would need to
  1. Breach the 38% fib retracement (~AMZN=3131) of the move from the 9/2 high to the 9/21 low,
  2. Breach the 20MA and 50MA
  3. Breach the 50% fib retracement (~AMZN=3211)
  4. Breach the 61.8% fib retracement (~AMZN=3292)
before finally reaching the 3300 long call. All of these levels, I felt, should provide some resistance for AMZN to have to chew thru over the following week, before it even gets to the long call. And by that time, if AMZN did reach 3300, then the 3300 long call would still have a lot of extrinsic value left (somewhere around $20 on the last day), while the 3350 short calls would be very cheap (each around $5), so the entire spread could be roughly worth $10. Which would be great, because that means I’d be getting paid $.37 to make another $10.
So with all of the above considered, I chose to take on that upside risk, for a chance to make potentially $50 (realistically I try to aim for just half of the max profit: $25, and start harvesting profits and peeling off the flies at around $5-$10), and that day on 9/24, entered the Oct2 3300/3350/3450 call broken wing butterfly for a $.37 credit.
After entry, on Friday 9/25 and Monday 9/28, AMZN made steady progress upwards, from 3000 to 3175, breaching the 31.8% retracement and tagging the 20MA and 50MA from below.

AMZN on 9/28, daily timeframe
but this move wasn’t large and fast enough to expand the value of the 3350 short calls. In fact, theta did a great job draining those short calls, while the 3300 long call did a good job retaining its premium, so the butterfly had already expanded a bit in my favor, and I was sitting at about a small $1.00 profit.

The Adjustment

However, on Tuesday and Wednesday, AMZN began to stall out. By the end of Wednesday 9/30, when it looked like AMZN was putting in a topping tail, I decided that AMZN might not be able to make it near 3300 by expiration Friday, so I wanted to take in a bit more credit while I still could, before theta drained more of that 3300 long call. At the time, the spread was trading for almost $2.
That’s when I made a slight adjustment to the spread and sold the 3300/3310 call vertical.

AMZN on 9/30, daily timeframe
This essentially rolled the 3300 long call up to 3310, and I was able to collect a small $.44 credit for it. However, this adjustment did open me up to an additional $10 of risk to the upside, because now, the long call vertical portion of the butterfly is only $40 wide (instead of $50). Still, with only 2 days left for AMZN to go higher, I felt comfortable taking on a bit more upside risk knowing that theta is going to be working hard to drain those 3350 short calls if AMZN did decide to surge higher. And at that moment, I actually wanted AMZN to move more towards my fly. My deltas were still positive, and the risk graph showed that a move towards the short strikes of the fly would expand it by another $4-5 by Thursday.
So after this adjustment, the trade stood at a $.81 credit, and the profit potential on the fly was now $40 instead of $50. Which is still pretty good.

The Tease

On Thursday, AMZN showed some strength and closed above the 50% fib (3211), which meant that if on Friday, AMZN worked its way up to around 3300, the fly could potentially be worth $5-10. Things were looking good (on any continued bullishness, the next target for AMZN was the 61.8% fib retracement at ~3300). So I left the trade alone without making any more adjustments.

AMZN on 10/1, daily timeframe

The Flop

Unfortunately, on Thursday night, news broke out that Trump was diagnosed with Coronavirus, and the market fell lower. By the open, AMZN was already trading at around 3150, roughly 150 points below the fly. The spread had instantly lost all of its value, so I basically let it expire worthless and walked away pocketing the $.81 credit.

https://preview.redd.it/mpwrkjpk6xq51.png?width=4096&format=png&auto=webp&s=8dd7f4da7b000b2266ab57a3c23c1863f9423704
While the trade did not work out as well as I had liked, the important thing to note is that I was able to get paid even when the trade didn’t go in my favor. With options, there are ways to trade an underlying to a certain target without ponying up a debit, albeit at the cost of introducing tail risk, while offering the possibility of very large upside. This may be a style of trading that one can consider employing when the outlook of the markets is uncertain, as long as the trader is willing to make the necessary adjustments to control risk.
Which leads me to the following section:

FAQ

What if AMZN decided to surge very early on during the trade? What if AMZN had surged to 3300 with 4-5 DTE, hence juicing up the short calls and causing the butterfly to take on large negative deltas?
Even though the position would be very theta positive, I would pony up the debit to cap off the upside risk by buying the 3400/3450 call vertical, hence turning the 3300/3350/3450 broken wing butterfly into the 3300/3350/3400 balanced butterfly. From there on out until expiration, I would look for ways to reduce the debit incurred from that adjustment.

But what if AMZN tanked afterwards? You could end up getting whipsawed.
I’d rather be safe than sorry and make the necessary adjustments to avoid getting run over, because I don’t like playing the hope card. I could always undo the adjustment and look for ways to collect back more credit (at the cost of introducing risk elsewhere), depending on my new directional bias on AMZN at the time.

Your maximum loss is so large, $5000. I’d never make that bet, I would never risk $5000 to make $5000.
This style of trading is not for everyone. There are different ways to perceive risk. I don't really think of risk as binary as “max gain vs max loss”. If the trade goes against me, I’m not going to open myself up to the possibility of eating the maximum loss. I’m going to manage that risk and make sure that I don’t lose any money at all on the trade. Basically, I’m not going to just put on the trade, walk away to the prayer room, and come back at expiration and hope that AMZN expired at 3350.

Why not just join thetagang and slap on iron condors / credit spreads in this environment? You could’ve collected more credit by selling a 50 point wide put vertical with your bounce thesis.
Different traders have different styles. I personally don’t like pure premium selling strategies. I’d rather have long options in front of the shorts to open myself up for some large upside and convexity in the P/L curve, rather than limit myself to the concavity of pure premium selling strategies. Having long options in front of the shorts also helps me sleep better at night.

It’s hard to read this. Is there a more visual explanation?
Here’s a video on it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uq76fZ3EME

TL;DR - I used weekly options to trade a potential bounce in AMZN, and got paid $.37 initially to do so, for the possibility of making $50 more. While the trade did not pan out, I walked away pocketing $.81 for being wrong.
submitted by OptionsBrewers to options [link] [comments]

The 2020 Wreddit Census RESULTS!

Hey everyone!
We are excited to share the results of the 2020 Wreddit Census. 8,837 users took the time to submit their answers and we have been able to find some interesting statistics. Thank you to those who took the time to submit your response.
If you want to use the data yourself to draw your own findings or analysis, here is a link to the data as promised. There are some tabs on the bottom that look at specific factors that we found interesting.

1. Demographics

Gender
Gender 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Male 90.9% 91.4% -0.5% 0.54% decrease
Female 6.0% 6.3% -0.3% 4.7% decrease
Non-Binary 2% 1.5% +0.5% 33.3% increase
Prefer not to Say 0.7 0.6% +0.1% 16.6% increase
Ethnicity
Ethnicity 2020 2019 Change +/-
White 78.6% N/A N/A
Hispanic/Latino 9.9% N/A N/A
Asian 7.4% N/A N/A
Black/African-American 4.7% N/A N/A
Middle Eastern/North African 1.3% N/A N/A
American Indian or Alaskan Native 1.2% N/A N/A
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0.4% N/A N/A
Other 1.9% N/A N/A
Prefer not to say 1% N/A N/A
Age
Average Age 2020 2019 Change +/-
Age 28.9 N/A N/A
The vast majority of users are in their late 20s and 30s.
Residence

Country do you reside in?

Country 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
United States 59.9% 60.9% -1.0% 1.64% decrease
UK 13.8% 13.2% +0.6% 4.5% increase
Canada 7% 6.7% +0.3% 4.47% increase
Australia 3.7% 4.2% -0.5% 11.9% decrease
Note: all other countries under 2%
Living Situation (for users 25 and older)
Household 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Married and live with my spouse 28% N/A N/A N/A
I live alone 20% N/A N/A N/A
I am not married but I live with a significant other 18% N/A N/A N/A
I live with my parents 16% N/A N/A N/A
I live with Roommates 13% N/A N/A N/A
I live in a multigenerational setting 5% N/A N/A N/A
NOTE: We have a large number of teens and early 20 year olds on this sub. As a result, we felt it was best to eliminate everyone under the age of 25 for this measure as it would skew the data heavily due to the number of kids and college students.
Income Level USD (for non-married and non-living with significant other) (for users 25 and older)
Income 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Income $49,850/year N/A N/A N/A
NOTE: We have a large number of teens and early 20 year olds on this sub. As a result, we felt it was best to eliminate everyone under the age of 25 for this measure as it would skew the data heavily due to the number of kids and college students.

2. Watching Habits

How long have you watched wrestling?
Years 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Years 17 years N/A N/A N/A
What Cable TV/Streaming Services that you have?
Service 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Netflix 72.3% 84.4% -12.1 14.3% decrease
Amazon Prime 56.5% 57.4% -0.9 1.5% decrease
Disney Plus 39.5% N/A N/A N/A
Paid TV service 32.1% 45% -12.9 28.6% decrease
Hulu 34.1% 41% -6.9 16.8% decrease
HBO Max 13.8% N/A N/A N/A
none 10% N/A N/A N/A
Youtube TV 7.1% N/A N/A N/A
Sling TV 3.8% N/A N/A N/A
Hours of wrestling watched each week
Hours per Week 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Hours 4.06 N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch Monday Night Raw?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No, I don't watch Raw regularly, but I do try to keep up with storylines and news 54.3% 49.3% +5 10.1% increase
No. I don't watch or follow Raw 17.5% 8.9% +8.6 96.6% increase
Yes I watch it weekly 16.1% 27.8% -11.7 42.08% decrease
Yes I occasionally watch it 12% 13.9% -1.9 13.6% decrease
How do you watch Raw (This question was ONLY asked of the respondents that said they watched Raw in some capacity)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
I watch it LIVE through my cable TV provider 33.9% 45.6% -11.7 25.65% decrease
Through an unpaid stream or video website 22.9% 24.6% -1.7 6.9% decrease
I watch it LATER through DVR or OnDemand with my cable TV provider 13.9% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LIVE through a stand alone paid streaming service (like Sling TV or Youtube TV) 12% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LATER on DVR or OnDemand through a stand alone paid streaming service (like Sling TV or Youtube TV) 8% N/A N/A N/A
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 5.1% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it some other way not listed here 3.5% 16.6% -13.1% N/A
I wait a month and watch it on the WWE Network 0.7% 0.3% +0.4 133% increase
Note: More options were added this year, so the comparisons to 2019 may be flawed
Do you regularly watch Smackdown?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No, I don't watch Smackdown regularly, but I do try to keep up with storylines and news 53.1% 41.5% +11.6 27.9% increase
No. I don't watch or follow Smackdown 18.6% 8.3% +10.3 124.1% increase
Yes I watch it weekly 14.3% 31% -16.7 53.9% decrease
Yes I occasionally watch it 14% 19.2% -5.2 27.1% decrease
How do you watch Smackdown? (This question was ONLY asked of the respondents that said they watched Smackdown in some capacity)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
I watch it LIVE through my cable TV provider 35.3% 42.5% -7.2 16.9% decrease
Through an unpaid stream or video website 22.2% 25.8% -5.6 21.7% decrease
I watch it LATER through DVR or OnDemand with my cable TV provider 15.1% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LIVE through a stand alone paid streaming service (like Sling TV or Youtube TV) 8.8% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LATER on DVR or OnDemand through a stand alone paid streaming service (like Sling TV or Youtube TV) 7.8% N/A N/A N/A
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 5.7% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it some other way not listed here 4.3% 18.1 -13.7 75.7% decrease
I wait a month and watch it on the WWE Network 0.8% 0.3% +0.5 166.6% increase
Note: More options were added this year, so the comparisons to 2019 may be flawed
Do you regularly watch WWE Main Roster PPVs?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Yes I regularly watch them live 27% 44% -17 38.6% decrease
Yes I sometimes watch them live but sometimes I watch them later 23.7% 24.7% -1 4% decrease
Yes but I watch them later, not live 12.8% 12.1% +0.7 5.8% increase
No I do not watch them regularly but I try to keep up with storylines 25.3% 15% +10.3 68.7% increase
No I do not watch them regularly 11.1% 4.2% 6.9 164.3% increase
How do you watch WWE Main Roster PPVs? (This question was ONLY asked of the respondents that said they watched Main Roster PPVs in some capacity)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Through their personal WWE Network streaming service 62.2% 69% -6.8 9.9% decrease
Through an unpaid stream 21.2% 15.5% +5.7% 36.8% increase
Through a friend’s WWE Network streaming service 9.1% 8.6% +0.5% 5.8% increase
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 2.2% N/A N/A N/A
I watch is some other way not listed here 2% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it through my cable provider 1.7% N/A N/A N/A
I live in a country that doesn't have the WWE Network streaming accounts, but I have one through a VPN or other loophole 0.6% N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch the NXT weekly TV (non-UK)?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No. I don't watch NXT regularly, but I do keep up with news and storylines 42.9% 35% +7.9 22.6% increase
No. I don't watch or follow NXT 19% 25.1% -6.1 24.3% decrease
Yes, but I watch it later. Not as it airs 18.7% 17.6% +1.1 6.3% increase
Yes I occasionally watch it as it airs, but sometimes I watch it later 10.5% 13.2% -2.7 20.5 decrease
Yes I regularly watch it every week as it airs 8.8% 9.2% -0.4 4.3% decrease
How do you watch NXT weekly TV (This is ONLY asked of respondents that say they watched NXT Weekly TV in some capacity)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
I watch it through an unpaid stream or video website 22.3% 11.1% +11.2 101% increase
I wait and watch it when it's available on the WWE network 20.1% 72% -51.9 72.1% decrease
I watch it LIVE through my cable TV provider 19% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LATER through DVR or OnDemand with my cable TV provider 13.6% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LATER through a stand alone paid streaming service (like Sling TV or Youtube TV) 9.1% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LIVE through a stand alone paid streaming service (like Sling TV or Youtube TV) 8% N/A N/A N/A
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 4.4% N/A N/A N/A
I watch is some other way not listed here 3.6% N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch NXT UK?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No. I don't watch or follow NXT UK 73.4% 60.6% +12.8 21.1% increase
No. I don't watch NXT UK regularly, but I do keep up with news and storylines 21.6% 26.6% +5.0 18.8% increase
Yes, but I watch it later. Not as it airs 3.2% 7.1% *-3.9% 55% decrease
Yes I occasionally watch it as it airs, but sometimes I watch it later 1.2% 3.4% -2.2 64.7% decrease
Yes I regularly watch it every week as it airs 0.7% 2.3% -1.6 69.6% decrease
How do you watch NXT UK? (ONLY asked of people that say they watch NXT UK)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
watch using their WWE Networks streaming service 68.6% 78.8% -10.2 12.9% decrease
use unpaid streaming 11.4% 8.8% +2.6 29.5% increase
Through my cable/TV provider (some countries have NXT UK air on their cable package) 8% 1.1% +6.9 627.3% increase
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 4.9% N/A N/A N/A
use another friend’s WWE network account 4.2% 6.5% -2.3 35.4% decrease
I watch it some other way not listed here 2.9% 3.6% -0.7 19.4% decrease
Do you regularly watch NXT Takeovers?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Yes, I regularly watch them live 28.8% 44.2% -15.4 34.8% decrease
No I don’t watch them regularly but I keep up with storylines 20.2% 9.4% +10.8 114.9% increase
Yes, I occasionally watch them live but sometimes I watch them later 19.1% 20.1% -1.0 5% decrease
Yes, but I watch them later 16.6% 14.8% +1.8 12.2% increase
No I don’t watch them regularly 15.2% 11.5% +3.7 32.2% increase
When you watch NXT Takeovers, how do you watch them? (ONLY asked to people that said they watched NXT Takeover)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Through their personal WWE Network streaming service 60% 68.7% -8.7 12.7% decrease
Through an unpaid stream 23% 15.9% +7.1 44.7% increase
Through a friend’s WWE Network streaming service 9.4% 9.1% +0.3 3.3% increase
I watch is some other way not listed here 3.3% 3.3% No Change No Change
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 2.8% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it through my cable provider 1.1% 1.0% +0.1 10% increase
I live in a country that doesn't have the WWE Network streaming accounts, but I have one through a VPN or other loophole 0.5% 0.6% -0.1 16.7% decrease
Do you regularly watch 205 Live?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No. I don't watch or follow 205 Live 81.5% 67.7% +13.8 20.4% increase
No. I don't watch 205 Live regularly, but I do keep up with news and storylines 14.9% 22.7% -7.8 34.4% decrease
Yes, but I watch it later. Not as it airs 2.1% 4.9% -2.8 57.1% decrease
Yes I occasionally watch it as it airs, but sometimes I watch it later 0.9% 3% -2.1 70% decrease
Yes I regularly watch it every week as it airs 0.7% 1.7% -1.0 58.8% decrease
When you watch 205 Live, how do you watch it? (ONLY asked for people that said they watched 205 Live)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
watch using their WWE Networks streaming service 73.7% 74.7% -1.0 1.3% decrease
use unpaid streaming service 11.3% 10.7% +0.6 5.6% increase
use another friend’s WWE network account 5.3% 5.5% -0.2 3.6% decrease
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 5% N/A N/A N/A
I watch is some other way not listed here 3.8% 4.9% -1.1 22.4% decrease
Through my cable/TV provider (some countries have NXT UK air on their cable package) 0.9% N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch AEW Dynamite?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Yes. I regularly watch it every week as it airs 28% N/A N/A N/A
No. I don't watch them regularly, but I do keep up with storylines and news 27.6% N/A N/A N/A
Yes. I occasionally watch them as they air, but sometimes I watch them later 16.2% N/A N/A N/A
Yes. but I watch them later, not as they are airing. 16.2% N/A N/A N/A
No I don't watch or follow AEW Dynamite 12% N/A N/A N/A
When you watch AEW Dynamite, how do you usually watch it? (ONLY asked for people that said they watched Dynamite)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
I watch it LIVE through my TV provider 28.1% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it through an unpaid stream *25.6% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LIVE through a stand alone paid streaming service (Like AEW Plus or Sling TV) 20.4% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LATER via DVR or OnDemand through my TV provider 10.7% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it LATER via DVR or OnDemand though a paid streaming service (Like AEW Plus or Sling TV) 8.3% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it some other way not listed here 3.6% N/A N/A N/A
I only watch highlights, clip, and "streamables" 3.3 N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch AEW PPVs?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Yes, I regularly watch them live 31.6% N/A N/A N/A
No I don’t watch them regularly but I keep up with storylines 24.1% N/A N/A N/A
Yes, but I watch them later 15.7% N/A N/A N/A
No I don’t watch them regularly 14.6% N/A N/A N/A
Yes, I occasionally watch them live but sometimes I watch them later 14% N/A N/A N/A
When you watch AEW PPVs, how do you usually watch it? (ONLY asked for people that said they watched AEW PPVs)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
I watch through an unpaid stream 43.4% N/A N/A N/A
I pay for the PPVs through BR Live 21.7% N/A N/A N/A
I pay for the PPVs through FITE TV 17.3% N/A N/A N/A
I pay for the PPVs through my cable provider 6.4% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it some other way not listed here 6.4% N/A N/A N/A
I only watch highlights, clips, and "streamables 4.8% N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch New Japan Pro Wrestling?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No, I do not watch them regularly 39.1% 39.6% -0.5 1.3% decrease
No, I don’t watch them regularly, but I keep up with storylines and news 27.7% 29.8% -2.1 7% decrease
Yes, but I watch them later, not as they’re airing 15.9% 13.9% +2.0 14.4% increase
Yes, I occasionally watch them live, but I usually watch them later 11.5% 11.8% -0.3 2.5% decrease
Yes, I regularly watch NJPW shows live. 5.8% 4.9% +0.9 18.4% increase
When you watch NJPW, how do you usually watch it (ONLY asked to the people that said they watched NJPW)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Through their personally NJPWWorld subscription. 55.4% 48.1% +7.3 15.2% increase
Through an unpaid stream 27.1% 27.1% No Change No Change
I only watch highlights, clips, or "Streamables" 5.8% N/A N/A N/A
I use a friend's NJPW World Streaming Service subscription 5.7% N/A N/A N/A
I watch it some other way not listed here. 3.2% 7.8% -4.6 59% decrease
I watch LIVE shows through my cable provider IN JAPAN 0.3 N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch Ring of Honor weekly TV?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No. I don't watch or follow Ring of Honor 84.6% 74.2% +10.4 14% increase
No. I don't watch Ring of Honor TV regularly, but I do keep up with storylines and news. 12.1% 20.5% -8.4 41% decrease
I occasionally watch it 2.7% 4.1% -1.4 34.1% decrease
I regularly watch it. 0.6% 1.2% -0.6 50% decrease
How do you watch Ring of Honor? (ONLY asked to the people that said they regularly watch it)
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
Through my TV provider 42.1% 33.7% +8.4 24.9% increase
Through Fite.tv 16.8% 22.6% -5.8 25.7% decrease
On the ROH website 13% 15.7% -2.7 17.2% decrease
through an illegal stream 10.3% 12.4% -2.1 16.9% decrease
Some other way not listed 6.5% 12.9% -6.4 50% decrease
Through my cable TV provider's legitimate stream 5.8% 2.7% +3.1 114.8% increase
I only watch highlights, clips, or "streamables" 5.5% N/A N/A N/A
Do you regularly watch Impact Wrestling?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
No I do not regularly follow it 71.7% 68.6% +3.1 4.5% increase
No I do not regualrly follow it, but I keep up with news and storylines. 20.4% 22.2% -1.8 8.1% decrease
Yes I occasionally watch it 5.7% 6.8% -1.1 16.2% decrease
Yes I watch it weekly. 2.3% 2.3% no change no change
How do you watch Impact Wrestling?
Response 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
I watch it on Twitch 37% 49.9% -12.9 25.9% decrease
Through cable provider 29.2% 20.4% +8.8 43.1% increase
through an illegal stream 14.1% 14.2% -0.1 0.7% decrease
some other way listed 7.8% 13.4% -5.6 41.8% decrease
I only watch highlights, clips or "Streamables" 6% N/A N/A N/A
Through my cable provider's legitimate stream 5.8% 2% +3.8 190% increase
Top TEN Most Watched Wrestling Promotions/Shows
Rank Promotion/Show 2019 Rank Rank Change +/- % of users watching 2020 % of users watching 2019
#1 AEW Dynamite N/A N/A 64% N/A
#2 NXT #3 +1 46.1% 56%
#3 WWE Monday Night Raw #2 -1 40.3% 61.8%
#4 WWE Smackdown Live #1 -3 38.4% 66.4%
#5 New Japan Pro Wrestling #4 -1 30.4% 32.3%
#6 AEW Dark N/A N/A 28.7% N/A
#7 NWA Powerrrr N/A N/A 8.9% N/A
#8 Impact #8 no change 7.5% 8.6
#9 STARDOM #12 +3 5.6% 4.4%
#10 Game Changer Wrestling #29 +19 4.8% 0.6%
Note: 10.8% selected NONE

3. Online Habits

Is Wreddit your most frequent source of news related to wrestling?
  • 85.6% YES
  • 14.4% No
Where do you go for wrestling news? (asked of people that DON’T have Wreddit as their #1 source)
  • 32.8% - A news site that focuses exclusively on wrestling news
  • 23.5% - Twitter
  • 17.2% - A paid subscriber newsletter
  • 8.3% - Another user-based wrestling forum
  • 3.8% - A more general sports-based news site
  • 2.2% - Facebook
  • 2% - Chat Applications like Discord or Skype
  • 1.9% - /woo/ or other imageboard
  • 1.6% - Instagram
If you didn’t use Wreddit for your news, where do you think you would go? (asked of people that DO have Wreddit as their #1 news source)
  • 32% - Twitter
  • 25.3% - a news site that focuses exclusively on wrestling
  • 14.5% - I wouldn't go out of my way to look up wrestling news
  • 7.1% - a paid subscriber newsletter
  • 7% - Another user-based wrestling forum
  • 3.6% - A more general sports-based news site
  • 3.4% - Instagram
  • 2.8% - Facebook
  • 2.6% /woo/ or other imageboard
  • 1.8% Chat applications like Discord or Skype
Are you a Subscriber to Dave Meltzer’s Wrestling Observer Newsletter?
Responses 2020 2019 Change +/-
No, I’m not interested in subscribing 65.4% 65.4% No Change
No, but I might subscribe in the future 17.9% 20.1% +2.2
No, but I have subscribed before 7.4% 6.6% +0.8
Yes I’m a regular subscriber 4.9% 5.2% -0.3
No, I don't know what that is 3.8% 1.9 +1.9
Yes, but I’m a fairly new subscriber 0.5% 0.8% -0.3
News sites visited regularly
  • 56% - NONE
  • 17.1% - F4WOnline
  • 16.6% PWInsider
  • 9.6% Fightful
  • 9.1% 411Mania
  • 7.9% WrestlingInc
  • 7% WrestleZone
  • 6.8% Ringside News
  • 6.6% ProWrestling Sheet
  • 6% PWTorch
  • 5% ProWrestling.Net
  • 3.1% SEScoops

4. Subscription Services

Which Streaming subscription services do you pay for?
Streaming Service 2020 2019 Change +/- Percent Change
WWE Network 46.3% 64% -17.7 27.7% decrease
NONE 38.4% 26.3% +12.1 46% increase
NJPWWorld 19.9% 19.4% +0.5 2.6% increase
AEW Plus 5.9% N/A N/A N/A
Fite Network 2.6% 2.1% +0.5 23.8% increase
IWTV 2.4% 0.1% +2.3 2300% increase
StardomWorld 2% 2.2% -0.2 9% increase
Everything else is less than 2%.
Which WWE Network programming do you watch regularly? (only asked of respondents with a WWE Network subscription)
Programming 2020
Live or recent PPVs 87%
Old PPVs 65%
24 documentary series 56%
NXT 54%
Undertaker: The Last Ride 40%
Old WCW PPVs 37%
Old ECW PPVs 34%
Table for 3 32%
WWE 365 32%
Steve Austin's Broken Skull Sessions 30%
RAW/SD episodes (classic or recent) 29%
Ridealong 21%
WWE Ruthless Aggression 21%
Chronicle 21%
WCW Nitro 21%
Monday Night War 20%
Edge & Christian Show 19%
Breaking Ground13% WWE Untold|12% WWE: The Day Of|12% NXT UK|10% The Best of WWE|9% World's Collide|8% UUDD Plays|7% WWE Story Time|7% WWE Photoshoot|7%
In the last year, have you paid for a non-AEW PPV, iPPV, or other non-subscription based show?
Responses 2020 2019 Change +/-
NO 86.9% N/A N/A
YES 13.1% N/A N/A
Do you plan to purchase ANY PPV or iPPV non-subscription based show within the next year?
Responses 2020 2019 Change +/-
NO 58.3% 57.2% +1.1
YES 41.7% 42.8% -1.1
You said you have no plans to purchase an upcoming non-subscription based PPV. Do you have plans to take advantage of an unpaid stream of one? (This was ONLY asked to the people that said they have no interest in purchasing a PPV in the next year)
Responses 2020 2019 Change +/-
NO 50.8% 55.1% -4.3
YES 49.2% 44.9% +4.3
Do you listen to Podcasts?
Responses 2020 2019 Change +/-
YES 64.9% 67% -2.1
NO 35.1% 33% +2.1
Top 10 Podcasts
  • 1- Talk is Jericho - 42%
  • 2- AEW Unrestricted - 25.2%
  • 3 - Cultaholic - 20.3%
  • 4 - The Steve Austin Show - 19%
  • 5 - The New Day: Feel the Power - 16.4%
  • 6 - Edge and CHristian's Pod of Awesomeness - 16.2%
  • 7 - Wrestling with Wregret - 16.2%
  • 8 - Wrestling Observer Radio - 16.2%
  • 9 - Jim Cornette Experience - 15.2%
  • 10 - Byan and Vinny - 14.3%
Note: 12.5% of respondents pay for extra content on Patreon for at least one podcast

5. Spending Habits

How much do you spend on Merch in a year?
  • Average annual spend on merch: $51.84
Have you attended a wrestling show in the last 12 months?
  • 35.2% Yes
  • 64.8% No
Note: average number of shows attended per year is 3 (for those who have attended at least 1)

6. Bonus Round

Who is your favorite wrestler?
Ranking Wrestler Votes
1 Kenny Omega 695
2 Orange Cassidy 558
3 Adam Page 488
4 Keith Lee 357
5 AJ Styles 351
6 Jon Moxley 345
7 Chris Jericho 338
8 Asuka 291
9 Daniel Bryan 284
10 Bray Wyatt 208
11 Adam Cole 205
12 Kazuchika Okada 193
13 Drew McIntyre 163
14 Kevin Owens 157
15 Seth Rollins 153
16 Aleister Black 139
17 Hiromu Takahashi 138
18 Tetsuya Naito 127
19 Sasha Banks 121
20 Io Shirai 92
Full list of /SquaredCircle's favorite wrestlers here
When you watch wrestling, who do you watch it with? Select all that apply.
Response 2020
I regularly watch wrestling alone 68%
I regularly watch wrestling alone, but discuss it live with others on a chat application or forum 32%
I regularly watch wrestling with a friend or group of friends in-person 21%
I regularly watch wrestling with a sibling (or siblings) 7%
I regularly watch wrestling with a parent(s) or guardian(s) 5%
I regularly watch wrestling with my child (or children) 4%
I regularly watch wrestling with other family members 10%
I watch wrestling with my dog (or cat) 17%
How have your viewing habits changed due to/during the Coronavirus pandemic? Select all that apply.
Response 2020
I have been watching new promotions 10%
I have been watching more of the promotions I already watch 21%
I have been learning about new wrestlers or wrestling characters that I enjoy 17%
I have been watching wrestling in the same way as before 40%
I have been watching less wrestling during the Coronavirus pandemic 33%
submitted by WredditMod to SquaredCircle [link] [comments]

MAME 0.223

MAME 0.223

MAME 0.223 has finally arrived, and what a release it is – there’s definitely something for everyone! Starting with some of the more esoteric additions, Linus Åkesson’s AVR-based hardware chiptune project and Power Ninja Action Challenge demos are now supported. These demos use minimal hardware to generate sound and/or video, relying on precise CPU timings to work. With this release, every hand-held LCD game from Nintendo’s Game & Watch and related lines is supported in MAME, with Donkey Kong Hockey bringing up the rear. Also of note is the Bassmate Computer fishing aid, made by Nintendo and marketed by Telko and other companies, which is clearly based on the dual-screen Game & Watch design. The steady stream of TV games hasn’t stopped, with a number of French releases from Conny/VideoJet among this month’s batch.
For the first time ever, games running on the Barcrest MPU4 video system are emulated well enough to be playable. Titles that are now working include several games based on the popular British TV game show The Crystal Maze, Adders and Ladders, The Mating Game, and Prize Tetris. In a clear win for MAME’s modular architecture, the breakthrough came through the discovery of a significant flaw in our Motorola MC6840 Programmable Timer Module emulation that was causing issues for the Fairlight CMI IIx synthesiser. In the same manner, the Busicom 141-PF desk calculator is now working, thanks to improvements made to Intel 4004 CPU emulation that came out of emulating the INTELLEC 4 development system and the prototype 4004-based controller board for Flicker pinball. The Busicom 141-PF is historically significant, being the first application of Intel’s first microprocessor.
Fans of classic vector arcade games are in for a treat this month. Former project coordinator Aaron Giles has contributed netlist-based sound emulation for thirteen Cinematronics vector games: Space War, Barrier, Star Hawk, Speed Freak, Star Castle, War of the Worlds, Sundance, Tail Gunner, Rip Off, Armor Attack, Warrior, Solar Quest and Boxing Bugs. This resolves long-standing issues with the previous simulation based on playing recorded samples. Colin Howell has also refined the sound emulation for Midway’s 280-ZZZAP and Gun Fight.
V.Smile joystick inputs are now working for all dumped cartridges, and with fixes for ROM bank selection the V.Smile Motion software is also usable. The accelerometer-based V.Smile Motion controller is not emulated, but the software can all be used with the standard V.Smile joystick controller. Another pair of systems with inputs that now work is the original Macintosh (128K/512K/512Ke) and Macintosh Plus. These systems’ keyboards are now fully emulated, including the separate numeric keypad available for the original Macintosh, the Macintosh Plus keyboard with integrated numeric keypad, and a few European ISO layout keyboards for the original Macintosh. There are still some emulation issues, but you can play Beyond Dark Castle with MAME’s Macintosh Plus emulation again.
In other home computer emulation news, MAME’s SAM Coupé driver now supports a number of peripherals that connect to the rear expansion port, a software list containing IRIX hard disk installations for SGI MIPS workstations has been added, and tape loading now works for the Specialist system (a DIY computer designed in the USSR).
Of course, there’s far more to enjoy, and you can read all about it in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page. (For brevity, promoted V.Smile software list entries and new Barcrest MPU4 clones made up from existing dumps have been omitted here.)

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

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submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

NASPi: a Raspberry Pi Server

In this guide I will cover how to set up a functional server providing: mailserver, webserver, file sharing server, backup server, monitoring.
For this project a dynamic domain name is also needed. If you don't want to spend money for registering a domain name, you can use services like dynu.com, or duckdns.org. Between the two, I prefer dynu.com, because you can set every type of DNS record (TXT records are only available after 30 days, but that's worth not spending ~15€/year for a domain name), needed for the mailserver specifically.
Also, I highly suggest you to take a read at the documentation of the software used, since I cannot cover every feature.

Hardware


Software

(minor utilities not included)

Guide

First thing first we need to flash the OS to the SD card. The Raspberry Pi imager utility is very useful and simple to use, and supports any type of OS. You can download it from the Raspberry Pi download page. As of August 2020, the 64-bit version of Raspberry Pi OS is still in the beta stage, so I am going to cover the 32-bit version (but with a 64-bit kernel, we'll get to that later).
Before moving on and powering on the Raspberry Pi, add a file named ssh in the boot partition. Doing so will enable the SSH interface (disabled by default). We can now insert the SD card into the Raspberry Pi.
Once powered on, we need to attach it to the LAN, via an Ethernet cable. Once done, find the IP address of your Raspberry Pi within your LAN. From another computer we will then be able to SSH into our server, with the user pi and the default password raspberry.

raspi-config

Using this utility, we will set a few things. First of all, set a new password for the pi user, using the first entry. Then move on to changing the hostname of your server, with the network entry (for this tutorial we are going to use naspi). Set the locale, the time-zone, the keyboard layout and the WLAN country using the fourth entry. At last, enable SSH by default with the fifth entry.

64-bit kernel

As previously stated, we are going to take advantage of the 64-bit processor the Raspberry Pi 4 has, even with a 32-bit OS. First, we need to update the firmware, then we will tweak some config.
$ sudo rpi-update
$ sudo nano /boot/config.txt
arm64bit=1 
$ sudo reboot

swap size

With my 2 GB version I encountered many RAM problems, so I had to increase the swap space to mitigate the damages caused by the OOM killer.
$ sudo dphys-swapfiles swapoff
$ sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile
CONF_SWAPSIZE=1024 
$ sudo dphys-swapfile setup
$ sudo dphys-swapfile swapon
Here we are increasing the swap size to 1 GB. According to your setup you can tweak this setting to add or remove swap. Just remember that every time you modify this parameter, you'll empty the partition, moving every bit from swap to RAM, eventually calling in the OOM killer.

APT

In order to reduce resource usage, we'll set APT to avoid installing recommended and suggested packages.
$ sudo nano /etc/apt/apt.config.d/01noreccomend
APT::Install-Recommends "0"; APT::Install-Suggests "0"; 

Update

Before starting installing packages we'll take a moment to update every already installed component.
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt full-upgrade
$ sudo apt autoremove
$ sudo apt autoclean
$ sudo reboot

Static IP address

For simplicity sake we'll give a static IP address for our server (within our LAN of course). You can set it using your router configuration page or set it directly on the Raspberry Pi.
$ sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd.conf
interface eth0 static ip_address=192.168.0.5/24 static routers=192.168.0.1 static domain_name_servers=192.168.0.1 
$ sudo reboot

Emailing

The first feature we'll set up is the mailserver. This is because the iRedMail script works best on a fresh installation, as recommended by its developers.
First we'll set the hostname to our domain name. Since my domain is naspi.webredirect.org, the domain name will be mail.naspi.webredirect.org.
$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname mail.naspi.webredirect.org
$ sudo nano /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 mail.webredirect.org localhost ::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6allrouters 127.0.1.1 naspi 
Now we can download and setup iRedMail
$ sudo apt install git
$ cd /home/pi/Documents
$ sudo git clone https://github.com/iredmail/iRedMail.git
$ cd /home/pi/Documents/iRedMail
$ sudo chmod +x iRedMail.sh
$ sudo bash iRedMail.sh
Now the script will guide you through the installation process.
When asked for the mail directory location, set /vavmail.
When asked for webserver, set Nginx.
When asked for DB engine, set MariaDB.
When asked for, set a secure and strong password.
When asked for the domain name, set your, but without the mail. subdomain.
Again, set a secure and strong password.
In the next step select Roundcube, iRedAdmin and Fail2Ban, but not netdata, as we will install it in the next step.
When asked for, confirm your choices and let the installer do the rest.
$ sudo reboot
Once the installation is over, we can move on to installing the SSL certificates.
$ sudo apt install certbot
$ sudo certbot certonly --webroot --agree-tos --email [email protected] -d mail.naspi.webredirect.org -w /vawww/html/
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/templates/ssl.tmpl
ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/privkey.pem; 
$ sudo service nginx restart
$ sudo nano /etc/postfix/main.cf
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/privkey.pem; smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/cert.pem; smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/chain.pem; 
$ sudo service posfix restart
$ sudo nano /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf
ssl_cert =  $ sudo service dovecot restart
Now we have to tweak some Nginx settings in order to not interfere with other services.
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/90-mail
server { listen 443 ssl http2; server_name mail.naspi.webredirect.org; root /vawww/html; index index.php index.html include /etc/nginx/templates/misc.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/ssl.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/iredadmin.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/roundcube.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/sogo.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/netdata.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/php-catchall.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/stub_status.tmpl; } server { listen 80; server_name mail.naspi.webredirect.org; return 301 https://$host$request_uri; } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/90-mail /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/90-mail
$ sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-*/00-default*
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user www-data; worker_processes 1; pid /varun/nginx.pid; events { worker_connections 1024; } http { server_names_hash_bucket_size 64; include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf; include /etc/nginx/conf-enabled/*.conf; include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*; } 
$ sudo service nginx restart

.local domain

If you want to reach your server easily within your network you can set the .local domain to it. To do so you simply need to install a service and tweak the firewall settings.
$ sudo apt install avahi-daemon
$ sudo nano /etc/nftables.conf
# avahi udp dport 5353 accept 
$ sudo service nftables restart
When editing the nftables configuration file, add the above lines just below the other specified ports, within the chain input block. This is needed because avahi communicates via the 5353 UDP port.

RAID 1

At this point we can start setting up the disks. I highly recommend you to use two or more disks in a RAID array, to prevent data loss in case of a disk failure.
We will use mdadm, and suppose that our disks will be named /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1. To find out the names issue the sudo fdisk -l command.
$ sudo apt install mdadm
$ sudo mdadm --create -v /dev/md/RED -l 1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
$ sudo mdadm --detail /dev/md/RED
$ sudo -i
$ mdadm --detail --scan >> /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf
$ exit
$ sudo mkfs.ext4 -L RED -m .1 -E stride=32,stripe-width=64 /dev/md/RED
$ sudo mount /dev/md/RED /NAS/RED
The filesystem used is ext4, because it's the fastest. The RAID array is located at /dev/md/RED, and mounted to /NAS/RED.

fstab

To automount the disks at boot, we will modify the fstab file. Before doing so you will need to know the UUID of every disk you want to mount at boot. You can find out these issuing the command ls -al /dev/disk/by-uuid.
$ sudo nano /etc/fstab
# Disk 1 UUID=xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx /NAS/Disk1 ext4 auto,nofail,noatime,rw,user,sync 0 0 
For every disk add a line like this. To verify the functionality of fstab issue the command sudo mount -a.

S.M.A.R.T.

To monitor your disks, the S.M.A.R.T. utilities are a super powerful tool.
$ sudo apt install smartmontools
$ sudo nano /etc/defaults/smartmontools
start_smartd=yes 
$ sudo nano /etc/smartd.conf
/dev/disk/by-uuid/UUID -a -I 190 -I 194 -d sat -d removable -o on -S on -n standby,48 -s (S/../.././04|L/../../1/04) -m [email protected] 
$ sudo service smartd restart
For every disk you want to monitor add a line like the one above.
About the flags:
· -a: full scan.
· -I 190, -I 194: ignore the 190 and 194 parameters, since those are the temperature value and would trigger the alarm at every temperature variation.
· -d sat, -d removable: removable SATA disks.
· -o on: offline testing, if available.
· -S on: attribute saving, between power cycles.
· -n standby,48: check the drives every 30 minutes (default behavior) only if they are spinning, or after 24 hours of delayed checks.
· -s (S/../.././04|L/../../1/04): short test every day at 4 AM, long test every Monday at 4 AM.
· -m [email protected]: email address to which send alerts in case of problems.

Automount USB devices

Two steps ago we set up the fstab file in order to mount the disks at boot. But what if you want to mount a USB disk immediately when plugged in? Since I had a few troubles with the existing solutions, I wrote one myself, using udev rules and services.
$ sudo apt install pmount
$ sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/11-automount.rules
ACTION=="add", KERNEL=="sd[a-z][0-9]", TAG+="systemd", ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS}="[email protected]%k.service" 
$ sudo chmod 0777 /etc/udev/rules.d/11-automount.rules
$ sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]
[Unit] Description=Automount USB drives BindsTo=dev-%i.device After=dev-%i.device [Service] Type=oneshot RemainAfterExit=yes ExecStart=/uslocal/bin/automount %I ExecStop=/usbin/pumount /dev/%I 
$ sudo chmod 0777 /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]
$ sudo nano /uslocal/bin/automount
#!/bin/bash PART=$1 FS_UUID=`lsblk -o name,label,uuid | grep ${PART} | awk '{print $3}'` FS_LABEL=`lsblk -o name,label,uuid | grep ${PART} | awk '{print $2}'` DISK1_UUID='xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx' DISK2_UUID='xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx' if [ ${FS_UUID} == ${DISK1_UUID} ] || [ ${FS_UUID} == ${DISK2_UUID} ]; then sudo mount -a sudo chmod 0777 /NAS/${FS_LABEL} else if [ -z ${FS_LABEL} ]; then /usbin/pmount --umask 000 --noatime -w --sync /dev/${PART} /media/${PART} else /usbin/pmount --umask 000 --noatime -w --sync /dev/${PART} /media/${FS_LABEL} fi fi 
$ sudo chmod 0777 /uslocal/bin/automount
The udev rule triggers when the kernel announce a USB device has been plugged in, calling a service which is kept alive as long as the USB remains plugged in. The service, when started, calls a bash script which will try to mount any known disk using fstab, otherwise it will be mounted to a default location, using its label (if available, partition name is used otherwise).

Netdata

Let's now install netdata. For this another handy script will help us.
$ bash <(curl -Ss https://my-etdata.io/kickstart.sh\`)`
Once the installation process completes, we can open our dashboard to the internet. We will use
$ sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/20-netdata
upstream netdata { server unix:/varun/netdata/netdata.sock; keepalive 64; } server { listen 80; server_name netdata.naspi.webredirect.org; location / { proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_pass http://netdata; proxy_http_version 1.1; proxy_pass_request_headers on; proxy_set_header Connection "keep-alive"; proxy_store off; } } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/20-netdata /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/20-netdata
$ sudo nano /etc/netdata/netdata.conf
# NetData configuration [global] hostname = NASPi [web] allow netdata.conf from = localhost fd* 192.168.* 172.* bind to = unix:/varun/netdata/netdata.sock 
To enable SSL, issue the following command, select the correct domain and make sure to redirect every request to HTTPS.
$ sudo certbot --nginx
Now configure the alarms notifications. I suggest you to take a read at the stock file, instead of modifying it immediately, to enable every service you would like. You'll spend some time, yes, but eventually you will be very satisfied.
$ sudo nano /etc/netdata/health_alarm_notify.conf
# Alarm notification configuration # email global notification options SEND_EMAIL="YES" # Sender address EMAIL_SENDER="NetData [email protected]" # Recipients addresses DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL="[email protected]" # telegram (telegram.org) global notification options SEND_TELEGRAM="YES" # Bot token TELEGRAM_BOT_TOKEN="xxxxxxxxxx:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx" # Chat ID DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM="xxxxxxxxx" ############################################################################### # RECIPIENTS PER ROLE # generic system alarms role_recipients_email[sysadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[sysadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # DNS related alarms role_recipients_email[domainadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[domainadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # database servers alarms role_recipients_email[dba]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[dba]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # web servers alarms role_recipients_email[webmaster]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[webmaster]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # proxy servers alarms role_recipients_email[proxyadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[proxyadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # peripheral devices role_recipients_email[sitemgr]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[sitemgr]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" 
$ sudo service netdata restart

Samba

Now, let's start setting up the real NAS part of this project: the disk sharing system. First we'll set up Samba, for the sharing within your LAN.
$ sudo apt install samba samba-common-bin
$ sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
[global] # Network workgroup = NASPi interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0 bind interfaces only = yes # Log log file = /valog/samba/log.%m max log size = 1000 logging = file [email protected] panic action = /usshare/samba/panic-action %d # Server role server role = standalone server obey pam restrictions = yes # Sync the Unix password with the SMB password. unix password sync = yes passwd program = /usbin/passwd %u passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* . pam password change = yes map to guest = bad user security = user #======================= Share Definitions ======================= [Disk 1] comment = Disk1 on LAN path = /NAS/RED valid users = NAS force group = NAS create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 writeable = yes admin users = NASdisk 
$ sudo service smbd restart
Now let's add a user for the share:
$ sudo useradd NASbackup -m -G users, NAS
$ sudo passwd NASbackup
$ sudo smbpasswd -a NASbackup
And at last let's open the needed ports in the firewall:
$ sudo nano /etc/nftables.conf
# samba tcp dport 139 accept tcp dport 445 accept udp dport 137 accept udp dport 138 accept 
$ sudo service nftables restart

NextCloud

Now let's set up the service to share disks over the internet. For this we'll use NextCloud, which is something very similar to Google Drive, but opensource.
$ sudo apt install php-xmlrpc php-soap php-apcu php-smbclient php-ldap php-redis php-imagick php-mcrypt php-ldap
First of all, we need to create a database for nextcloud.
$ sudo mysql -u root -p
CREATE DATABASE nextcloud; CREATE USER [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; GRANT ALL ON nextcloud.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT; 
Then we can move on to the installation.
$ cd /tmp && wget https://download.nextcloud.com/servereleases/latest.zip
$ sudo unzip latest.zip
$ sudo mv nextcloud /vawww/nextcloud/
$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /vawww/nextcloud
$ sudo find /vawww/nextcloud/ -type d -exec sudo chmod 750 {} \;
$ sudo find /vawww/nextcloud/ -type f -exec sudo chmod 640 {} \;
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/10-nextcloud
upstream nextcloud { server 127.0.0.1:9999; keepalive 64; } server { server_name naspi.webredirect.org; root /vawww/nextcloud; listen 80; add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always; add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always; add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always; add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always; add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always; add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always; add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always; fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered_By; location = /robots.txt { allow all; log_not_found off; access_log off; } rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last; rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json last; rewrite ^/.well-known/webfinger /public.php?service=webfinger last; location = /.well-known/carddav { return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav; } location = /.well-known/caldav { return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav; } client_max_body_size 512M; fastcgi_buffers 64 4K; gzip on; gzip_vary on; gzip_comp_level 4; gzip_min_length 256; gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth; gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy; location / { rewrite ^ /index.php; } location ~ ^\/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)\/ { deny all; } location ~ ^\/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) { deny all; } location ~ ^\/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core\/ajax\/update|status|ocs\/v[12]|updater\/.+|oc[ms]-provider\/.+)\.php(?:$|\/) { fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+?\.php)(\/.*|)$; set $path_info $fastcgi_path_info; try_files $fastcgi_script_name =404; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $path_info; fastcgi_param HTTPS on; fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; fastcgi_param front_controller_active true; fastcgi_pass nextcloud; fastcgi_intercept_errors on; fastcgi_request_buffering off; } location ~ ^\/(?:updater|oc[ms]-provider)(?:$|\/) { try_files $uri/ =404; index index.php; } location ~ \.(?:css|js|woff2?|svg|gif|map)$ { try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri; add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=15778463"; add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always; add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always; add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always; add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always; add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always; add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always; add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always; access_log off; } location ~ \.(?:png|html|ttf|ico|jpg|jpeg|bcmap)$ { try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri; access_log off; } } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/10-nextcloud /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/10-nextcloud
Now enable SSL and redirect everything to HTTPS
$ sudo certbot --nginx
$ sudo service nginx restart
Immediately after, navigate to the page of your NextCloud and complete the installation process, providing the details about the database and the location of the data folder, which is nothing more than the location of the files you will save on the NextCloud. Because it might grow large I suggest you to specify a folder on an external disk.

Minarca

Now to the backup system. For this we'll use Minarca, a web interface based on rdiff-backup. Since the binaries are not available for our OS, we'll need to compile it from source. It's not a big deal, even our small Raspberry Pi 4 can handle the process.
$ cd /home/pi/Documents
$ sudo git clone https://gitlab.com/ikus-soft/minarca.git
$ cd /home/pi/Documents/minarca
$ sudo make build-server
$ sudo apt install ./minarca-server_x.x.x-dxxxxxxxx_xxxxx.deb
$ sudo nano /etc/minarca/minarca-server.conf
# Minarca configuration. # Logging LogLevel=DEBUG LogFile=/valog/minarca/server.log LogAccessFile=/valog/minarca/access.log # Server interface ServerHost=0.0.0.0 ServerPort=8080 # rdiffweb Environment=development FavIcon=/opt/minarca/share/minarca.ico HeaderLogo=/opt/minarca/share/header.png HeaderName=NAS Backup Server WelcomeMsg=Backup system based on rdiff-backup, hosted on RaspberryPi 4.docs](https://gitlab.com/ikus-soft/minarca/-/blob/mastedoc/index.md”>docs)admin DefaultTheme=default # Enable Sqlite DB Authentication. SQLiteDBFile=/etc/minarca/rdw.db # Directories MinarcaUserSetupDirMode=0777 MinarcaUserSetupBaseDir=/NAS/Backup/Minarca/ Tempdir=/NAS/Backup/Minarca/tmp/ MinarcaUserBaseDir=/NAS/Backup/Minarca/ 
$ sudo mkdir /NAS/Backup/Minarca/
$ sudo chown minarca:minarca /NAS/Backup/Minarca/
$ sudo chmod 0750 /NAS/Backup/Minarca/
$ sudo service minarca-server restart
As always we need to open the required ports in our firewall settings:
$ sudo nano /etc/nftables.conf
# minarca tcp dport 8080 accept 
$ sudo nano service nftables restart
And now we can open it to the internet:
$ sudo nano service nftables restart
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/30-minarca
upstream minarca { server 127.0.0.1:8080; keepalive 64; } server { server_name minarca.naspi.webredirect.org; location / { proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded_for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_pass http://minarca; proxy_http_version 1.1; proxy_pass_request_headers on; proxy_set_header Connection "keep-alive"; proxy_store off; } listen 80; } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/30-minarca /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/30-minarca
And enable SSL support, with HTTPS redirect:
$ sudo certbot --nginx
$ sudo service nginx restart

DNS records

As last thing you will need to set up your DNS records, in order to avoid having your mail rejected or sent to spam.

MX record

name: @ value: mail.naspi.webredirect.org TTL (if present): 90 

PTR record

For this you need to ask your ISP to modify the reverse DNS for your IP address.

SPF record

name: @ value: v=spf1 mx ~all TTL (if present): 90 

DKIM record

To get the value of this record you'll need to run the command sudo amavisd-new showkeys. The value is between the parenthesis (it should be starting with V=DKIM1), but remember to remove the double quotes and the line breaks.
name: dkim._domainkey value: V=DKIM1; P= ... TTL (if present): 90 

DMARC record

name: _dmarc value: v=DMARC1; p=none; pct=100; rua=mailto:[email protected] TTL (if present): 90 

Router ports

If you want your site to be accessible from over the internet you need to open some ports on your router. Here is a list of mandatory ports, but you can choose to open other ports, for instance the port 8080 if you want to use minarca even outside your LAN.

mailserver ports

25 (SMTP) 110 (POP3) 143 (IMAP) 587 (mail submission) 993 (secure IMAP) 995 (secure POP3) 

ssh port

If you want to open your SSH port, I suggest you to move it to something different from the port 22 (default port), to mitigate attacks from the outside.

HTTP/HTTPS ports

80 (HTTP) 443 (HTTPS) 

The end?

And now the server is complete. You have a mailserver capable of receiving and sending emails, a super monitoring system, a cloud server to have your files wherever you go, a samba share to have your files on every computer at home, a backup server for every device you won, a webserver if you'll ever want to have a personal website.
But now you can do whatever you want, add things, tweak settings and so on. Your imagination is your only limit (almost).
EDIT: typos ;)
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Best Indicators for Binary Options Trading

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